Battle of Chustenahlah

Stand Watie (Cherokee: ᏕᎦᏔᎦ, romanized: Degataga, lit.'Stand firm') (12 December 1806 – 9 September 1871), also known as Standhope Uwatie, Tawkertawker, and Isaac S. Watie, was a leader of the Cherokee Nation. The nation allied with the Confederacy, and he was the only Native American to attain a general's rank in the Civil War, Confederacy or Union. He commanded the Confederate Indian cavalry of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, made up mostly of Cherokee, Muskogee and Seminole. He was the last Confederate general in the field to cease hostilities at war's end.

Before removal of the Cherokee to Indian Territory in the late 1830s, Watie and his older brother Elias Boudinot were among Cherokee leaders who signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835. The majority of the tribe opposed their action. In 1839, the brothers were attacked in an assassination attempt, as were other relatives active in the Treaty Party. All but Stand Watie were killed. Watie in 1842 killed one of his uncle's attackers, and in 1845 his brother Thomas Watie was killed in retaliation, in a continuing cycle of violence that reached Indian Territory. Watie was acquitted by the Cherokee at trial in the 1850s on the grounds of self-defense.

During the Civil War and soon after, Watie served as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation (1862–1866). Watie led the Southern Cherokee delegation to Washington, D.C. after the war to sue for peace, hoping to have tribal divisions recognized. The US government negotiated only with the leaders who had sided with the Union. It recognized former chief John Ross as principal chief in 1866, under a new treaty.[citation needed] Watie stayed out of politics for his last years, and tried to rebuild his plantation.

Early life

Watie was born in Oothcaloga, Cherokee Nation (now Calhoun, Georgia) on 12 December 1806, the son of Uwatie (Cherokee for "the ancient one", sometimes spelled Oowatie), a full-blood Cherokee, and Susanna Reese, daughter of a white father and Cherokee mother.[2] He was named Degataga. According to one biography, this name means "standing firm" when translated to English.[3] Watie's brothers were Gallagina, nicknamed "Buck" (who later took the name Elias Boudinot), and Thomas Watie. They were close to their paternal uncle Major Ridge, and his son John Ridge, both later leaders in the tribe. By 1827, their father David Uwatie had become a wealthy planter, who held African-American slaves as laborers.[2]

After Uwatie converted to Christianity with the Moravians, he took the name of David Uwatie; he and Susanna renamed Degataga as Isaac. In his life, Degataga preferred to use "Stand", a loose translation of his Cherokee name. Later, the family dropped the "U" from the spelling of their surname, using "Watie." Along with his two brothers and sisters, Watie learned to read and write English at the Moravian mission school in Spring Place, Cherokee Nation (now Georgia).[2]

Adult life

Stand Watie occasionally helped write articles for the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper, for which his older brother Elias served as editor from 1828–1832. The first Native American newspaper, the Phoenix published articles in both Cherokee and English.[4]

Watie became involved in the dispute over Georgia's repressive anti-Indian laws. After gold was discovered on Cherokee lands in northern Georgia, thousands of white settlers encroached on Indian lands. There was continuing conflict, and Congress passed the 1830 Indian Removal Act, to relocate all Indians from the Southeast to lands west of the Mississippi River. In 1832, Georgia confiscated most of the Cherokee land, despite federal laws to protect Native Americans from state actions. The state sent militia to destroy the offices and press of the Cherokee Phoenix, which had published articles against Indian Removal.[5]

Believing that removal was inevitable, the Watie brothers favored securing Cherokee rights by treaty before relocating to Indian Territory. They were among the Treaty Party leaders who signed the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. The majority of the Cherokee opposed removal, and the Tribal Council and Chief John Ross, of the National Party, refused to ratify the treaty.[6][page needed]

One source states that Stand Watie married four women: Eleanor Looney, Elizabeth Fields, Isabella Hicks, and Sarah Caroline Bell. His child with Elizabeth Fields was stillborn in 1836. Watie and Sarah Bell married in 1842. They had three sons and two daughters, but there were no grandchildren.[2]

Early years in Indian Territory

In 1835, Watie, his family, and many other Cherokee emigrated to Indian Territory (eastern present-day Oklahoma). They joined some Cherokee who had relocated as early as the 1820s and were known as the "Old Settlers".[7]

Those Cherokee who remained on tribal lands in the East were rounded up and forcibly removed by the U.S. government in 1838.[8] Their journey became known as the "Trail of Tears," as 4,000 people died.[9]

After removal, members of the Cherokee government carried out sentences against Treaty Party men for execution; their giving up tribal lands was a "blood" or capital offense under Cherokee law. Stand Watie, his brother Elias Boudinot, their uncle Major Ridge and cousin John Ridge, along with several other Treaty Party men, were all sentenced to death on 22 June 1839; only Stand Watie survived. He arranged for his brother Elias' children to be sent for their safety and education to their mother's family in Connecticut; their mother Harriet had died in 1836 before the migration.[10]

In 1842, Watie encountered James Foreman, whom he recognized as one of his uncle's executioners, and killed him. This was part of the post-Removal violence within the tribe, which was close to civil war for years. Ross supporters executed Stand's brother Thomas Watie in 1845.[11] In the 1850s, Stand Watie was tried in Arkansas for the murder of Foreman; he was acquitted on the grounds of self-defense. His nephew Elias Cornelius Boudinot, who had returned to the West and become a lawyer, defended him.[10]

After John Ross fled to Federal-controlled territory in 1862, Watie replaced Ross as principal chief.[2]

Civil War service

The Cherokee Braves flag, as flown by Stand Watie's troop

Watie was the only Native American to rise to a brigadier general's rank in the Confederacy during the war.

Fearful of the Federal Government and the threat to create a State (Oklahoma) out of most of what was then the semi-sovereign "Indian Territory", a majority of the Cherokee Nation initially voted to support the Confederacy in the American Civil War for pragmatic reasons, though less than a tenth of the Cherokee owned slaves. Watie organized a regiment of cavalry. In October 1861, he was commissioned as colonel in what would become the 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles.[12]

Although Watie fought Federal troops, he also led his men in fighting between factions of the Cherokee and in attacks on Cherokee civilians and farms, as well as against the Creek, Seminole and others in Indian Territory who chose to support the Union. Watie is noted for his role in the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, on March 6–8, 1862. Under the overall command of General Benjamin McCulloch, Watie's troops captured Union artillery positions and covered the retreat of Confederate forces from the battlefield after the Union took control.[13] However, most of the Cherokees who had joined Colonel John Drew's regiment defected to the Union Side. Drew, a nephew of Chief Ross, remained loyal to the Confederacy.[13]

In August 1862, after John Ross and his followers announced their support for the Union and went to Fort Leavenworth, the remaining Southern Confederate minority faction elected Stand Watie as principal chief.[14]

After Cherokee support for the Confederacy sharply declined, Watie continued to lead the remnant of his cavalry. He was promoted to brigadier general by General Samuel Bell Maxey on 10 May 1864,[12] though he did not receive word of his promotion until after he led the ambush of the steamboat J. R. Williams on 16 July 1864.[15] Watie commanded the First Indian Brigade of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, composed of two regiments of Mounted Rifles and three battalions of Cherokee, Seminole and Osage infantry. These troops were based south of the Canadian River, and periodically crossed the river into Union territory.[citation needed]

They fought in a number of battles and skirmishes in the western Confederate states, including the Indian Territory, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, and Texas. Watie's force reportedly fought in more battles west of the Mississippi River than any other unit. Watie took part in what is considered to be the greatest (and most famous) Confederate victory in Indian Territory, the Second Battle of Cabin Creek, which took place in what is now Mayes County, Oklahoma on 19 September 1864. He and General Richard Montgomery Gano led a raid that captured a Federal wagon train and netted approximately $1 million worth of wagons, mules, commissary supplies, and other needed items.[16] Stand Watie's forces massacred black haycutters at Wagoner, Oklahoma during this raid. Union reports said that Watie's Indian cavalry "killed all the Negroes they could find", including wounded men.[17]

Since most Cherokee were now Union supporters, during the war, General Watie's family and other Confederate Cherokee took refuge in Rusk and Smith counties of east Texas.[18] The Cherokee and allied warriors became a potent Confederate fighting force that kept Union troops out of southern Indian Territory and large parts of north Texas throughout the war, but spent most of their time attacking other Cherokee.[citation needed]

The Confederate Army put Watie in command of the Indian Division of Indian Territory in February 1865. By then, however, the Confederates were no longer able to fight in the territory effectively.[2]

On 23 June 1865, at Doaksville in the Choctaw Nation (now Oklahoma), Watie signed a cease-fire agreement with Union representatives for his command, the First Indian Brigade of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi. He was the last Confederate general in the field to surrender.[12][19][20]

In September 1865, after his demobilization, Watie went to Texas to see his wife Sallie and to mourn the death of their son, Comisky, who had died at age 15.[21]

After the war, Watie was a member of the Cherokee Delegation to the Southern Treaty Commission, which renegotiated treaties with the United States.[22]

Tribal leadership and death

Historical Marker in Polson Cemetery

John Ross had signed an alliance with the Confederacy in 1861 in order to avoid disunity within his tribe and among the Indian Territory Indians.[23] Within less than a year, Ross and part of the National Council concluded that the agreement had proved disastrous. In the summer of 1862, Ross removed the tribal records to Union-held Kansas and then proceeded to Washington to meet with President Lincoln.[23] After Ross' departure, Tom Pegg took over as principal chief of the pro-Union Cherokee.[24] Following Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, Pegg called a special session of the Cherokee National Council. On 18 February 1863, it passed a resolution to emancipate all slaves within the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation.

After many Cherokee fled north to Kansas or south to Texas for safety, pro-Confederates took advantage of the instability and elected Stand Watie principal chief. Ross' supporters refused to recognize the validity of the election. Open warfare broke out between Confederate and Union Cherokee within Indian Territory, the damage heightened by brigands with no allegiance at all.[25] After the Civil War ended, both factions sent delegations to Washington, D.C. Watie pushed for recognition of a separate "Southern Cherokee Nation", but never achieved that.[2]

The U.S. government, recognizing that the two factions would never agree on common terms, decided to negotiate with them separately and play them against each other. By doing so, it was able to extract a number of concessions from both sides. The resulting treaty required the Cherokee to free their slaves. The Southern Cherokee wanted the government to pay to relocate the Cherokee Freedmen from their lands. The Northern Cherokee suggested adopting them into the tribe, but wanted the federal government to give the Freedman an exclusive piece of associated territory. The federal government required that the Cherokee Freedmen would receive full rights for citizenship, land, and annuities as the Cherokee. It assigned them land in the Canadian addition. This treaty was signed by Ross on 19 July 1866, and ratified by the U.S. Senate on 27 July, four days before Ross' death.[26]

The tribe was strongly divided over the treaty issues and a new chief was elected, Lewis Downing, a full-blood and compromise candidate. He was a shrewd and politically savvy Principal Chief, bringing about reconciliation and reunification among the Cherokee. Tensions lingered into the 20th century, but the Cherokee did not have the extended insurrection among pro-Confederate forces[clarification needed] that occurred in the South.[27]

After the treaty signing, Watie had gone into exile in the Choctaw Nation. Shortly after Downing's election, he returned to the Cherokee. Watie tried to stay out of politics and rebuild his fortunes. He returned to Honey Creek, where he died on 9 September 1871. Watie was buried in the old Ridge Cemetery, later called Polson's Cemetery, in what is now Delaware County, Oklahoma, on 9 September 1871[2] as a citizen of the Cherokee Nation.[27]


After moving to Indian Territory, Stand Watie married Sarah Bell on September 18, 1842. Their families had been long-time friends. They had three sons: Saladin, Solon and Cumiska, and two daughters, Minnee and Jacqueline. Saladin died while the family was living at Mount Tabor / Bellview, Texas (the home of his in-laws the Bells) in 1868, while Solon died during the following year. Both daughters died not long after their father. Sarah died in 1884.[28]

In popular culture

The Confederate monument in Tahlequah, removed in June 2020. The monument to General Watie himself is not shown.

See also


  1. ^ Cunningham, p. 4.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Kenny A. Franks, "Stand Watie." Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.
  3. ^ Dale, Edward E. Chronicles of Oklahoma, "Some Letters of General Stand Watie." Volume 1, Number 1, January 1921. Retrieved December 24, 2012.[1]
  4. ^ Langguth 2010, p. 76.
  5. ^ Langguth 2010, p. 274.
  6. ^ Wilkins, Thurman (1986). The Cherokee Tragedy: The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People. ISBN 978-0-585-19424-0.
  7. ^ Lowery, Charles D. "The Great Migration to the Mississippi Territory, 1798–1819," Journal of Mississippi History. 1968 30(3): 173–192
  8. ^ Frank, Andrew K. Indian Removal Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed April 27, 2013)
  9. ^ Pauls, Elizabeth Prine. "Trail of Tears." Encyclopædia Britannica. Accessed January 27, 2016.
  10. ^ a b James W. Parins (2005). Elias Cornelius Boudinot: A Life on the Cherokee Border. American Indian Lives. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-3752-0.
  11. ^ Southern Cherokee Nation. "Early History of the Southern Cherokee." Retrieved July 14, 2013.
  12. ^ a b c Franks, Kenny A. "Watie's Regiment". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
  13. ^ a b Langguth 2010, p. 392.
  14. ^ Langguth 2010, p. 394.
  15. ^ Civil War in the Indian Territory. Cottrell, Steve. Pelican Books, pp. 94–95. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  16. ^ Knight, pp. 245–253.
  17. ^ Allardice, Bruce S. (2008) Kentuckians in Gray, p. 101, University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2475-9.
  18. ^ Oklahoma Historical Society, John Bartlett Meserve, Chronicles of Oklahoma, Vol. 15, no.1, March 1937, pp. 57–59. Read account at Accessed on 12/21/12.
  19. ^ Stand Watie bio, Civil War Home
  20. ^ Brigadier General Stand Watie, WBTS in Indian Territory
  21. ^ "Stand Watie's Last Battle." Grand Lake Business Journal. November 13, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.[2]
  22. ^ "Reconstruction Treaties, Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History". Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  23. ^ a b Moulton 1978, pp. 174–75.
  24. ^ Sturme, Circe. "Blood Politics, Racial Classification, and Cherokee National Identity", American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1/2 (Winter/Spring 1998)(stable url [3]), accessed September 6, 2011.
  25. ^ Warde, When the Wolf Came: The Civil War and Indian Territory (2013), chapters 3–6.
  26. ^ McLoughlin, William G. (July 1, 2014). After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty, 1839–1880. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 223–227. ISBN 9781469617343. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  27. ^ a b Dale, Edward Everet, and Gaston Litton. Cherokee Cavaliers, pp. 229–234 & 263–266. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939) ISBN 0-8061-2721-X.
  28. ^ Anderson, Mabel Washbourne, "General Stand Watie." Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume10, Number 4. December 1932. Accessed January 27, 2016.
  29. ^ "BookRags Study Guide on Rifles for Watie", BookRags Study Guides (accessed April 27, 2013)
  30. ^ The Great Sioux Uprising (accessed April 27, 2013)
  31. ^ "Don Edwards – Coyotes Song Lyrics". Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  32. ^ Studies in American Indian Literatures: Newsletter of the Association for Study of American Indian Literatures. Association for Study of American Indian Literatures. 2000. p. 35. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  33. ^ "'Time for a change:' Cherokee Nation removes monuments dedicated to Confederate soldiers". June 13, 2020. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020.


Further reading

  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: McKay, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8129-1726-0. First published 1959 by McKay.
  • Connole, Joseph. The Civil War and the Subversion of American Indian Sovereignty (McFarland &Company, Inc. Press, 2017)
  • Cottrell, Steve (1998). Civil War in Indian Territory. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing.
  • Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
  • Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9.
  • Silkenat, David. Raising the White Flag: How Surrender Defined the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019. ISBN 978-1-4696-4972-6.
  • Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4.
  • Wilkins, Thurman. Cherokee Tragedy: The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8061-2188-2
  • McLoughlin, William G. Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

External links

Preceded by
John Ross
Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation
Succeeded by
John Ross