The Alabama Republican Party is the state affiliate of the Republican Party in Alabama. It is the dominant political party in Alabama. The state party is governed by the Alabama Republican Executive Committee. The committee usually meets twice a year. As of the February 23, 2019 meeting in Birmingham, the committee is composed of 463 members, it is likely the largest executive committee in the nation. Most of the committee's members are elected in district elections across Alabama. The district members are elected in the Republican Primary once every four years, with the most recent election for the committee having been on June 5, 2018. The new committee takes office following the general election in November 2018. In addition, all 67 county GOP chairmen have automatic seats as voting members. The state chairman can appoint 10 members. Each county committee can appoint bonus members (maximum of 5 per county) based on a formula that theoretically could add 312 seats, although that formula currently calls for only about 50 seats.
The Alabama Republican Executive Committee has several important functions. Every two years the committee elects the state chairman, vice chairmen, the secretary and the treasurer as well as other members of a steering committee. Together, they have responsibility for administering the day-to-day operations of the party. The committee also sets election rules for the statewide Republican primary and has oversight responsibilities for the 67 county parties. The committee also elects The national committeeman (currently Paul Reynolds, since 2008) and national committeewoman (currently Vicki A. Drummond, since 2012) to serve on the Republican National Committee from Alabama. In addition, Vicki Drummond serves as the secretary of the Republican National Committee. Once every four years the committee selects the GOP slate for U.S. presidential electors and chooses alternate delegates to the GOP National Convention.
Party chairman and officers
The chairman of the Alabama Republican Party is Terry Lathan of Theodore. She became the second woman to serve as chairman of the Alabama GOP upon her election on February 21, 2015. She was elected to a second term on February 25, 2017 and to a third term on February 23, 2019. She has more than forty years of active service to the Republican Party including a stint as Mobile County Republican Executive Committee chair.
The secretary of the Alabama Republican Party is Josh Dodd of Lauderdale County who was elected on February 23, 2019. The party treasurer is Sallie Bryant of Jefferson County who has held the post since mid-2017 and was re-elected on February 23, 2019. The longest-serving chairman in state party history was Claude O. Vardaman of Birmingham, who held the post for twenty years from 1942 to 1962. The first chairman of the Alabama GOP was John C. Keffer (1867) of Montgomery, who was an agent for the Freedmen's Bureau.
Current elected officials
Members of Congress
Republicans have controlled Alabama's Class III seat in the U.S. Senate since 1994 when incumbent Senator Richard Shelby switched from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party. Shelby was subsequently re-elected to a third term in 1998:
- Class III: Richard Shelby (Senior Senator)
U.S. House of Representatives
Out of the 7 seats Alabama is apportioned in the U.S. House of Representatives, 6 are held by Republicans:
- AL-01: Bradley Byrne
- AL-02: Martha Roby
- AL-03: Mike D. Rogers
- AL-04: Robert Aderholt
- AL-05: Mo Brooks
- AL-06: Gary Palmer
Statewide Constitutional Offices
Republicans control all seven of the elected statewide offices:
- Governor: Kay Ivey
- Lieutenant Governor: Will Ainsworth
- Attorney General: Steve Marshall
- Secretary of State: John Merrill
- State Auditor: Jim Zeigler
- State Treasurer: John McMillan
- Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries: Rick Pate
Statewide Statutory Offices
- Alabama Public Service Commission
- President - Twinkle Andress Cavanaugh
- Associate Commissioner - Place 1 - Jeremy H. Oden
- Associate Commissioner - Place 2 - Chris "Chip" Beeker, Jr.
- Chief Justice: Tom Parker
- Associate Justice: Brady E. Mendheim Jr.
- Associate Justice: Tommy Bryan
- Associate Justice: William Sellers
- Associate Justice: Jay Mitchell
- Associate Justice: Sarah Hicks Stewart
- Associate Justice: Greg Shaw
- Associate Justice: Kelli Wise
- Associate Justice: Michael F. Bolin
- William C. Thompson, Presiding Judge
- Christy O. Edwards
- Scott Donaldson
- Chad Arthur Hanson
- Terry A. Moore
- Mary Becker Windom, Presiding Judge
- Richard J. Minor
- J. Elizabeth Kellum
- J. Chris McCool
- James William "Bill" Cole
- President Pro Tempore of the Senate: Del Marsh
- Senate Majority Leader: Greg Reed
- Speaker of the House: Mac McCutcheon
The founding of the Alabama GOP (1854–1867)
When the Republican Party was first organized in 1854, as an anti-slavery party, it did not compete in southern states such as Alabama. In its first three presidential elections (including 1864, in which Alabama did not participate due to the Civil War), the party did not even distribute ballots in Alabama for its presidential candidate. (At the time, ballots were not printed by the government, but were distributed by parties for their supporters to drop into ballot boxes.) After the Civil War and following Alabama's readmission to the union in 1868, Alabama was a Republican dominated state for much of the Reconstruction period due to a combination of factors including its support from north Alabama unionists, poor white farmers who had never owned slaves, and the newly enfranchised black voters. Republican Ulysses S. Grant carried the state in both the 1868 and 1872 presidential elections.
One of the organizations that became the initial Alabama GOP, the Union League, first came into north Alabama in 1863 as counties fell back under Union control during The Civil War. In early 1867, local Republicans gathered in several different meetings around the state. The first was in Moulton, on January 8 and 9 in Lawrence County, then March meetings in both Huntsville and Decatur, a gathering on March 25 in Montgomery, and then May 1 in Mobile, all for the purpose of organizing an early summer state convention to create a state Republican Party. In a simultaneous meeting with the Union League, the Republican Party of Alabama was initially organized on June 4–5, 1867. That first state convention was held in the capital city of Montgomery in the chambers of the Alabama House of Representatives. That convention was called the Union Republican Convention and consisted of 150 delegates, of whom 100 were black. Alabama Governor Robert M. Patton spoke to the Convention. Francis W. Sykes of Lawrence County was elected as chairman pro tempore, and Judge William Hugh Smith of Randolph County was named permanent chairman of the convention. The convention's delegates were mostly from two groups, the Freedmen's Bureau (which included and/or represented most of Alabama's black citizens) and the Union League which represented about the 1/3 of north Alabama's white citizens who had remained as loyalists in the Civil War or had otherwise opposed secession in 1861.
The convention adopted what was considered a liberal platform for the time including "equal rights for all men without distinction of color." The convention also endorsed the platform of the National Republican Party and supported free public education for all Alabamians. The convention established the first State Republican Executive Committee of 24 members. It included 12 prominent native Alabamians whom had mostly been unionists. The other members included three carpetbaggers, five African-Americans, and four otherwise unaffiliated and unidentified individuals.
Early history of Alabama GOP (1868–1890)
In 1868, William Hugh Smith was elected to a single two-year term as the state's first Republican governor. That same year saw Republican Andrew Applegate elected as the first-ever lieutenant governor of Alabama under the state's newly adopted constitution of 1867. That first post Civil War legislature under the new constitution was elected in February, 1868, with a 100-member House of Representatives (two-year terms) composed of 97 Republicans and 3 Democrats. The State Senate (four-year terms) was even more lopsided, with a single Democrat to its 32 Republicans. The 1868 legislature also included 27 Black Republicans, the first minority members in Alabama history. All but one were members of the House of Representatives. That same year (1868–1875) of Bullock County became the first black State Senator in Alabama history. That Republican-controlled legislature passed a resolution on November 24, 1869, approving the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guaranteeing black men the right to vote in Alabama. Governor Smith was defeated for re-election in 1870, garnering 49.5% of the vote and losing by a margin of just 1,439 votes. Although the Senate was not up for re-election that year, Democrats retook the House with 57 seats to the Republicans 38 seats, of which 19 were African-American Republicans.
After Republicans spent a single term out of the governor's office, David P. Lewis was elected as the state's second GOP governor, winning 89,020 to 78,524 over his Democratic opponent. He served from 1872 to 1874. His GOP lieutenant governor was Alexander McKinstry. During Governor Lewis' term, disputed election results produced two competing legislatures, one with a Democratic majority and the other a Republican majority. After this dispute was ultimately settled, Republicans had a 2-seat majority in the House and Democrats a 1-seat majority in the Senate. Again, this 1872 legislature included 24 African-American Republican members with 5 being in the Senate. The 1874 legislature would see only 13 Republican Senators and House membership at 40. However, this legislature would hit a high-water mark for minority representation with 33 African-American Republicans. The 1876 election would result in 18 members (7 of which were African-American) being elected to the House and only 4 Republicans to the Senate. Republicans would be reduced to just 8 members in the House in the 1878 election. Following the 1880 election Republicans held only a single seat in the Alabama House with the election of Benjamin M. Long from Walker County. In fact, Walker County had a strong Republican Party for much of the remainder of the 19th century.
Republican representation in the legislature and other public offices had declined rapidly after the 1875 Constitution was adopted. That document began the process of restricting black voter participation and expanding all forms of Jim Crow laws. Further orchestrated efforts at voter intimidation, lynchings, vote fraud, and the inability of differing Republican factions to work together all doomed the party to long-term failure. After the 1878 election no black, and few Republicans, would be elected to the legislature again until the 1970s.
During this same Reconstruction period three African-American Republicans were elected to the United States Congress from Alabama. They were Benjamin Turner (42nd Congress), James T. Rapier (43rd Congress) and Jeremiah Haralson (44th Congress). However, the first Republican Congressmen from Alabama were elected in 1868. They were Charles W. Buckley (40th and 41st Congress'), Francis W. Kellogg, Benjamin W. Norris, Charles W. Pierce, John B. Callis, and Thomas Haughey who would be assassinated in Alabama while giving a speech. The first Republican Senators from Alabama were Willard Warner (1868–1871) and George E. Spencer (1868–1879) who were both elected by the legislature before adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Alabama Republicans and the Populists (1890–1916)
By the late 1890s, a coalition between the Populist Party and the Republican Party often produced "fusion tickets", that combined forces in several subsequent elections to win control of several of Alabama hill counties in this era. They were most dominant in Marshall, St. Clair, Shelby, and Chilton Counties. Between 1892 and 1932 Shelby County was usually closely contested under the leadership of A. P. Longshore. Marshall County elected Republican Thomas Kennamer in 1896 to the Alabama House of Representatives. DeKalb County voted in 1896 for GOP Presidential candidate William McKinley. Chilton County was decidedly Republican between 1900–1912, including electing Lewis W. Reynolds as a Republican Probate Judge in 1904 and again in 1916. S. J. Petree was elected as a Republican Probate Judge in Franklin County in 1910; C. C. Scheuing was elected Cullman County Sheriff in 1910; J. B. Sloan was elected as a Republican to the State Senate from a district made up of Blount, Cullman, and Winston Counties. In 1910, J. J. Curtis of Winston County became the first Republican Circuit Judge (for Winston & Walker Counties) in Alabama since Reconstruction.
In this time period, in the 54th United States Congress, two brothers, Truman H. Aldrich (1896–1897) and William F. Aldrich (1896–1897), both served as Republicans. William Aldrich also served in the 55th Congress (1898–99) and the 56th Congress (1900–01) with the unusual distinction of having been seated all three times in disputed elections ultimately decided by Congress itself. After William Aldrich left Congress in 1901, no Republican would be elected again until 1964.
Post Office Republicans (1916–1962)
Following the end of the populist era, Republicans effectively competed in just a few isolated hill counties, mostly in north Alabama. While the Reconstruction period saw their strongest voting base in the Black Belt counties, Republicans during this period relied on the north Alabama counties that had never been strong proponents of the institution of slavery. The GOP garnered its support from a coalition of small farmers, blacks, labor, prohibitionists, etc. Again, these were often voters primarily from counties across the northern width of the state like Lawrence, Blount, Cullman, Walker, Winston, and DeKalb counties. Many of these counties regularly elected some Republicans to local office or occasionally to the state legislature well into the 1920s. However, only Winston County reliably elected Republicans to almost all offices as the county had attempted to secede from Alabama during the Civil War and has always been considered ancestrally Republican. During this prolonged period the Alabama GOP atrophied as a political party and became heavily dependent on federal patronage for its existence. The federal appointments during Republican administrations in Washington for such offices as local postmasters, U.S. Attorneys, and federal judgeships became the only real presence of a Republican Party to most of the state. The state party usually returned thanks for this patronage by pledging its National Convention delegates to the supporting administration, thus making control of the party only about seats at the National Conventions and the issue of patronage. This situation caused its members to be derisively called "Post Office Republicans" both inside and outside of the party. Since most of the party's effort and energy was to securing those federal offices rather than trying to win actual election at the ballot box the party almost died completely by the late 1950s. The most important and prominent of these Republican appointees would occur when President Eisenhower appointed Winston County's Frank M. Johnson to a Federal District Judgeship. Ironically, Johnson's frequent pro civil rights rulings from the bench would make him a hero to liberal Democrats and widely disliked in his own party. Johnson's owe father had briefly served in the state legislature as a Republican from 1942–1944.
The Goldwater Landslide and the modern GOP (1962–1972)
The modern Republican Party in Alabama traces its roots back to the election of John Grenier as State Party Chairman in 1962. That year Grenier with the support of the Alabama Young Republicans forced long-time Chairman Claude O. Vardaman into retirement without a contest. Grenier, along with a new generation of political activists played leading roles in re-organizing the party and moving beyond the "Post Office Republican" era. Determined to change the focus back to winning elections they recruited serious candidates for Congress in 1962. That year they nearly toppled U.S. Senator Lister Hill with the candidacy of James D. Martin in a controversial race that Republicans have always maintained was "stolen" in the dead of the night. Two years later most of those same candidates for Congress would run again in 1964, resulting in a Republican sweep of five of Alabama's eight congressional seats with victories by Jack Edwards, Glenn Andrews, James D. Martin, John Buchanan and Bill Dickinson. Martin would give up his congressional seat two years later in an unsuccessful run for Governor against Lurleen Wallace, but the GOP would hold three of the congressional seats for decades to come. That election, commonly referred to in Alabama as "The Goldwater Landslide" would see the GOP win several dozen local offices. It also included the election of Probate Judges in Cullman County named Guy Hunt and Perry O. Hooper, Sr., in Montgomery County. Both would later go on to greater electoral successes. The 1964 election is credited as partially laying the foundations for Alabama's modern Republican Party. Among the party's other prominent officeholders in the period was George G. Siebels, Jr. who served two terms as Mayor of Birmingham from 1967–1975. In 1968, the party went through a nasty internal struggle for Alabama's seat on the Republican National Committee. John Grenier would lose that contest to Jim Martin. It would take many years to heal the rift the bitter race had caused between two old friends and their respective supporters in the party.
A statewide primary and the 1986 Election (1972 to 2010)
In 1972, the state party made a historic change from a state convention nominating system for all candidates to having a statewide party primary. This allowed voters to directly choose all nominees for public and party offices with its main goal being to broaden public support for the party. It would only slowly have that desired effect. In 1978, the party would begin its long steady build-up to competing for seats in the legislature by winning a few seats in suburban Birmingham, Mobile, and Montgomery. In 1980, Jeremiah Denton became the first popularly elected Republican U. S. Senator in Alabama history after first winning that new statewide primary.
In 1982, Emory Folmar who would serve as Mayor of Montgomery (1977–1999) would make the party's first serious run for Governor since Martin in 1966. However, four years later in 1986, the wisdom of the change to a primary finally paid huge dividends for the GOP. Guy Hunt in a very unusual election would defeat the Democrat with 57% of the vote in the Governor's race. Hunt had been chosen in a statewide primary and the Democrat's disqualified their nominee claiming he had "unfairly" won their primary. Voters rewarded the GOP by electing Guy Hunt. Hunt's election is widely viewed as effectively making Alabama a two-party state even though Republicans only made very modest legislative gains that year. The victory in the Governor's race in 1986 was the first Republican win in a statewide constitutional office since Reconstruction ending 114 years of Democrat rule. Almost immediately the party became focused on winning the other statewide races (Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, Commissioner of Agriculture and the Public Service Commission). In 1994, Perry O. Hooper, Sr. would defeat the incumbent Democrat Chief Justice of Alabama in another controversial race. That same year Republicans increased their total in the Alabama House of Representatives from 24 to 31 seats. Legislative membership continued to modestly climb each cycle and Republicans began winning other statewide offices. Republicans also won the State Auditor's Race and the Secretary of State's office.
A Republican Majority Legislature (2010-present)
The move to GOP hegemony in the statewide offices occurred fairly quickly. But the real prize was always to achieve a GOP majority in the State Legislature. In the November 2010 general election 136 years of Democratic control of the Alabama state legislature finally came to an end. That day, the GOP won large majorities in both chambers gaining 17 seats in the House and 11 in the State Senate. Within another two weeks four additional House seats moved to the GOP as four self-styled conservatives bolted from the Democrats to the GOP just after being re-elected. Over the four-year term that followed another Democrat in the Senate would switch to being Republican as well as two more Democrat House members joining the GOP.
Also, in the 2010 general election Republicans swept all statewide races electing Robert J. Bentley as Governor and Kay Ivey defeating the Democrat incumbent in the Lieutenant Governor's race. Republicans have won seven of the last eight governors races dating back to 1986. In 2012 Democrats lost the last statewide office still in their possession.
In the 2014 general election, Republicans held on to every seat in their legislative majority and in fact, increased their numbers again in both chambers defeating incumbent Democrats and winning open seats. They added three more Senate seats to hold 26 seats to just 8 Democrats and 1 Independent. In the House, they added five more seats taking their majority to 72 seats for the GOP and just 33 for the Democrats. Yet as recently as 1977, there were no Republicans in either chamber of the Alabama Legislature until a lone seat was won that year in a special election. In 2014, Governor Bentley received almost 64% of the vote, leading a sweep of all statewide offices that included the re-election of Lieutenant Governor Kay Ivey, the state's first female Republican Lt. Governor. GOP U. S. Senator Jeff Sessions was unopposed for a fourth term, the first time in state history that Democrats failed to produce a nominee.
Today, Republicans hold one of Alabama's U.S. Senate seats and six of its seven seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. Until December 2017, no Democrat had been elected to the U. S. Senate from the state since 1992 when Richard Shelby was elected to a second term. Shelby switched parties in 1994 and has since been re-elected easily. On December 12, 2017, Democrat Doug Jones defeated Republican Nominee Roy Moore in a special election, and took office on January 3, 2018. The Alabama Republican Party has also greatly helped GOP presidential candidates in the state. All Republican presidential nominees have won Alabama in ten straight elections; the last Democrats to carry Alabama were Jimmy Carter in 1976 and John F. Kennedy in 1960 although Carter only received a plurality of the vote. Republican Mitt Romney easily won Alabama in 2012 over Democrat Barack Obama in excess of 60%. Donald Trump also handily carried the state in 2016 for the GOP taking 62.1% of the vote.
The GOP has won six consecutive races for Attorney General dating back to 1994. Six of the eight seats on the State Board of Education have elected Republicans. The Alabama Supreme Court, State Appeals Courts, and the rest of the state judiciary are moving decisively to Republican dominance. All nine Supreme Court justices and the ten judges who sit on the two statewide appellate courts are all Republicans. Today even the lower courts are moving to the GOP. The partisan line-up of Circuit Judges following the 2016 general election consists of 82 Republicans and 66 Democrats. However, the Democrats judgeships are increasing limited to urban area as 34 of their 66 judgeships are in just Jefferson and Montgomery counties, while the GOP judgeships are spread among 38 different counties. Also, as of October, 2017 the GOP has a majority on the district courts with 62 seats to the Democrats 42. In the last four years the GOP has achieved a net combined gain of 43 Circuit and District Judges through a combination of election wins, party switchers and the Governor filling vacancies with GOP appointees. It is all the more dramatic when one considers that there were less than one half dozen GOP judges in Alabama prior to 1986.
Although Democrats often like to "claim" they still control the county courthouses even that bastion has slipped away. As of March 1, 2016, of the 351 county commissioners in Alabama's 67 counties, the partisan breakdown is 183 Republicans and 168 Democrats. Put another way 37 of those Courthouses have Republican majority County Commissions, 28 have Democratic majorities and 2 are evenly split. Of Alabama's 67 elected county school boards, the breakdown of seats heading into the 2016 General Election is 201 Republicans and 172 Democrats. However, the GOP has a majority on 33 of those boards and the Democrats also have a majority on 33 with one remaining board being evenly split in Pike County.
In the November 6, 2018 General Election Republicans swept to an easy victory in every statewide contest with Governor Kay Ivey winning a full term with over 59% of the vote. Will Ainsworth received over 60% in the Lieutenant Governor's race and Tom Parker defeated Democrat Bob Vance, Jr. by more than 15 points in the race for Chief Justice. Democrats also lost another five seats in the Alabama House of Representatives making the new lineup to be 77 Republicans and 28 Democrats. Republicans held all their seats in both chambers and also added one additional seat in the State Senate making the upper chambers partisan alignment to be 27 Republicans and 8 Democrats.
The Yellowhammer State can accurately be described as one of the more staunchly Republican states in the nation. According to The Gallup polling organization, Alabama is the eighth most Republican state in the nation
Past Chairs of the Alabama Republican Party
|Chair||Years of Service||County|
|John C. Keffer|
|Benjamin White Norris|
|Thomas O. Glasscock|
|Gen. Robert Wallace Healy|
|DeWitt C. Whiting|
|Charles E. Mayer|
|William Hugh Smith|
|John Van McDuffie|
|George E. Turner|
|Chester Arthur Bingham, Sr.|
|Dr. Robert A. Moseley, Jr.|
|Dr. William A. Vaughn|
|Julius Wester Davidson|
|Willard I. Wellman|
|Joseph Oswalt Thompson|
|Pope McFarland Long|
|Frank S. Rea|
|Pope McFarland Long|
|John M. Atkins|
|Alexander C. Birch|
|Lewis Henry Reynolds|
|Balpha Lonnie Noojin, Sr.|
|Dr. Joseph C. Swann, Sr.|
|Claude O. Vardaman|
|Dr. Thomas H. Bingham|
|Alfred W. Goldthwaite|
|Charles O. Smith|
|J. Richard "Dick" Bennett|
|W. Edgar Welden|
|William D. "Bill" Harris|
|Emory M. Folmar|
|Arthur R. Outlaw|
|J. Elbert Peters|
|Spencer T. Bachus, III|
|J. Elbert Peters|
|Roger E. McConnell|
|Winton M. Blount, III|
|Twinkle Andress Cavanaugh|
Republican Governors of Alabama
- William Hugh Smith (1868–1870)
- David P. Lewis (1872–1874)
- Guy Hunt (1987–1993)
- Fob James (1995–1999)
- Bob Riley (2003–2011)
- Robert J. Bentley (2011–2017)
- Kay Ivey (2017–present)
Republican Lieutenant Governors of Alabama
- Andrew Applegate (1868–1870)
- Alexander McKinstry (1872–1874)
- Steve Windom (1999–2003)
- Kay Ivey (2011–2017)
- Will Ainsworth (2019-present)
Republican Attorney's General of Alabama
- Joshua Morse (1868–1869)
- Benjamin Gardner (1872–1873)
- Jeff Sessions (1995–1997)
- William H. Pryor, Jr. (1997–2004)
- Troy King (2004–2011)
- Luther Strange (2011–2017)
- Steve Marshall (2017–present)
Prominent Alabama Republicans
- Winton M. Blount, Postmaster General of the United States (1969–1972)
- William J. Cabaniss, United States Ambassador to Czech Republic (2004–2006)
- William Hooper Councill, black educator and first President of Alabama A&M University
- Jeremiah Denton, U.S. Senator (1981–1987) and war hero
- William Brevard Hand, U.S. District Judge (1971–1989)
- Frank Minis Johnson, United States District Judge (1955–1979); U.S. Court of Appeals Judge (1979–1999)
- F. David Mathews, U. S. Secretary of Health, Education & Welfare (1975–1977)
- Condoleezza Rice, U. S. Secretary of State (2005–2009)
- Edwina Rogers, General Counsel to the Republican National Committee (1994) and prominent Washington lobbyist
- Jeff Sessions, Attorney General of the United States (2017–2018)
- Margaret D. Tutwiler, United States Ambassador to Morocco (2001–2003)
- Booker T. Washington, educator, civil rights leader, and first President of Tuskegee University
- Heather Whitestone, Miss America (1995)
- Terry Lathan, Chairman of the Alabama Republican Party
- Press Release, Alabama Republican Party, Terry Lathan, Chair; January 25, 2019
- Role of the Scalawag in Alabama Reconstruction, 1965, Sarah Woolfolk
- Wiggins, The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, page 39 (1977)
- Bailey, Neither Carpetbaggers nor Scalawags (1991)
- Wiggins, The Scalawag in Alabama Politics 1977
- Webb and Armbrester, Alabama Governors, A Political History of the State 2001
- Thomas McAdory Owen, History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography (1921)
- Wiggins, The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, (1977)
- Webb, Two-Party Politics in the One-Party South (1997)
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Lanham, M.D., Biographical Directory of the Federal Judiciary (1789–2000)
- Alabama Legislature website, Roster of the Alabama House of Representatives (1922-present)
- Hevesi, Dennis, The New York Times, Nov. 10, 2007
- Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
- Office of the Alabama Secretary of State
- Alabama Association of County Commissions
- Alabama Secretary of State website
- Mackenzie Weinger, Politico, 8/11/2011, Gallup Survey.
- Alabama Department of Archives and History