Born in Tiffin, Ohio, Goodin moved to Kenton, Ohio with his father in 1844. He attended Kenton High School and Geneva College, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1857, commencing practice in Kenton. He moved to Humboldt, Kansas in 1859, was elected to the Kansas House of Representatives in 1866 and was judge of the seventh judicial district of Kansas from 1868 to 1876. Goodin was elected a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in 1874, serving from 1875 to 1877, being unsuccessful for reelection in 1876. Afterwards, he was editor of the Inter State in Humboldt, Kansas and moved to Kansas City, Kansas in 1883 where he died on December 18, 1885. He was interned in Oak Grove Cemetery in Kansas City.
- United States Congress. "John R. Goodin (id: G000287)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- John R. Goodin at Find a Grave
-  John Randolph Goodin at PerryCoFamiles.org Perry County, Ohio
|Party political offices|
| Democratic nominee for Governor of Kansas
Edmund G. Ross
|U.S. House of Representatives|
|New district|| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kansas's 2nd congressional district
March 4, 1875 – March 3, 1877
Dudley C. Haskell
This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.