Thomas Brackett Reed (October 18, 1839 – December 7, 1902), was an American politician from the state of Maine, and was a member of the Republican Party. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives 12 times, first in 1876, and served as Speaker of the House, from 1889–1891 and again from 1895–1899.
Occasionally ridiculed as "Czar Reed", he had great influence over the agenda and operations of the House, more so than any previous speaker. He increased the Speaker's power by instituting the "Reed Rules," which limited the ability of the minority party to prevent the establishment of a quorum.
Reed helped pass the Lodge Bill, which sought to protect African American voting rights in the Southern United States, but the bill failed to pass in the Senate and never became law. He opposed the Spanish–American War and resigned from Congress in 1899.
Personal life and early career
Reed was born in Portland, Maine on October 18, 1839 to Matilda Prince (Mitchell) and Thomas B. Reed. Reed attended public schools, including Portland High School, before attending Bowdoin College, from which he graduated in 1860.
Afterward, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1865. He was an acting assistant paymaster for the United States Navy during the Civil War, from April 1864 to November 1865. He practiced in Portland and was elected to the Maine House of Representatives in 1868 and 1869. He served in the Maine Senate in 1870 but left to serve as the state's Attorney General from 1870 to 1872. Reed became city solicitor of Portland from 1874 to 1877 before being elected as a Republican to the 45th Congress in 1876.
He married Susan P. Merrill, born at Center Harbor, New Hampshire, on Lake Winnipesaukee. Her father, the Rev. Samuel H. Merrill, a well-known Congregational clergyman, was pastor of a church in Center Harbor at the time of her birth. Six years afterwards he returned with his family to his native state, Maine. During the Civil War, Merrill served as chaplain of the First Maine Cavalry, and Susan also had a brother in this famous regiment. Merrill's pastorates, aside from his war experiences, were principally in Maine. Susan Merrill's mother was Hannah Prentis, a native of New Hampshire. Merrill had one brother, Edward P. Merrill, and one sister, who resided in Lowell, Massachusetts. Merrill and Reed were friends in childhood, attending school together in Portland. They married in 1871. Reed was then a member of the Maine Legislature, and the young couple went immediately to Augusta, the state capital. They had one daughter, Katherine.
He was known for his acerbic wit (asked if his party might nominate him for President, he noted, "They could do worse, and they probably will"). His size, standing at over 6 feet in height and weighing over 300 lbs (136 kg), was also a distinguishing factor for him. Reed was a member of the social circle that included intellectuals and politicians Henry Cabot Lodge, Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Adams, John Hay and Mark Twain.
As a House freshman, Reed was appointed to the Potter Commission, which was to investigate voting irregularities in the presidential election of 1876, where his skill at cross examination forced Democrat Samuel J. Tilden to appear in person to defend his reputation. He chaired the Committee on the Judiciary (Forty-seventh Congress) and chaired the Rules Committee (Fifty-first, Fifty-fourth, and Fifty-fifth Congresses).
Reed was first elected Speaker after an intense fight with William McKinley of Ohio. Reed gained the support of young Theodore Roosevelt; his influence as the newly appointed Civil Service Commissioner was the decisive factor. Reed served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1889 to 1891 and then from 1895 to 1899, as well as being Chairman of the powerful Rules Committee.
During his time as Speaker, Reed assiduously and dramatically increased the power of the Speaker over the House; although the power of the Speaker had always waxed (most notably during Henry Clay's tenure) and waned, the position had previously commanded influence rather than outright power. Reed set out to put into practical effect his dictum, "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." That was accomplished by carefully studying the existing procedures of the US House, most dating to the original designs, written by Thomas Jefferson. In particular, Reed sought to circumscribe the ability of the minority party to block business by way of its members refusing to answer a quorum call, which, under the rules, prevented a member from being counted as present even if he were physically in the chamber, thus forcing the House to suspend business. That is popularly called the disappearing quorum.
Reed's solution was enacted on January 29, 1890 in what has popularly been called the "Battle of the Reed Rules". That came about when Democrats attempted to block the inclusion of a newly elected Republican from West Virginia, Charles Brooks Smith. The motion to seat him passed by a tally of 162–1; however, at the time, a quorum consisted of 165 votes, and when voting closed Democrats shouted, "No quorum," triggering a formal House quorum count. Reed began the roll call; when members who were present in the chamber refused to answer, Reed directed the Clerk to count them as present anyway. Startled Democrats protested heatedly, issuing screams, threats, and insults at the Speaker. James B. McCreary, a Democrat from Kentucky, challenged Reed's authority to count him as present; Reed replied, "The Chair is making a statement of fact that the gentleman from Kentucky is present. Does he deny it?"
Unable to deny their presence in the chamber, Democrats then tried to flee the chamber or hide under their desks, but Reed ordered the doors locked. (Texas Representative Constantine B. Kilgore was able to flee by kicking his way through a door.)
The conflict over parliamentary procedure lasted three days, with Democrats delaying consideration of the bill by introducing points of order to challenge the maneuver and then appealing Reed's rulings to the floor. Democrats finally dropped their objections on January 31, and Smith was seated on February 3 by a vote of 166–0. Six days later, with Smith seated, Reed won a vote on his new "Reed Rules," eliminating the disappearing quorum and lowering the quorum to 100 members. Though Democrats reinstated the disappearing quorum when they took control of the House the following year, Reed as minority leader proved so adroit at using the tactic against them that Democrats reinstated Reed Rules in 1894.
In 1889 and 1890, Republicans undertook one last stand in favor of federal enforcement of the Fifteenth Amendment to protect the voting rights of blacks in the Solid South. Reed took a special interest in the project. Using his new rules vigorously, he won passage of the Lodge Bill in the House in 1890. The bill was later defeated in a filibuster in the Senate when Silver Republicans in the West traded it away for the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
End of political career and death
In 1898, Reed joined McKinley in efforts to head off war with Spain. When McKinley switched to supporting the war, Reed, refusing to change his position, opposed him and then resigned from both the speakership and his seat in Congress in 1899, returning to private law practice.
In early December 1902, Reed was in Washington on legal business with the United States Supreme Court. On December 2, Reed visited his former colleagues in the Ways and Means Committee room. Later that day, he became ill while in another room of the Capitol and was rushed to the nearby Arlington Hotel. In the Arlington, Reed was diagnosed with Bright's disease complicated by appendicitis; he died five days later at 12:10am on December 7 with his wife and daughter at his bedside. A Gridiron Club dinner was occurring at the same time in the same hotel as Reed's death. When news broke of Reed's passing, "the diners rose to drink a silent toast to a man who had so often been among them".
Henry Cabot Lodge eulogized him as "a good hater, who detested shams, humbugs and pretense above all else." Mark Twain wrote of him, "He was transparently honest and honorable, there was no furtiveness about him, and whoever came to know him trusted him and was not disappointed. He was wise, he was shrewd and alert, he was a clear and capable thinker, a logical reasoner, and a strong and convincing speaker."
His home town of Portland, Maine, erected a statue of him at the corner of Western Promenade and Pine Street in a ceremony on August 31, 1910. His last home in Portland has been designated a National Historic Landmark in his honor.
In 1894, he published his handbook on parliamentary procedure, titled Reed's Rules: A Manual of General Parliamentary Law, which was, at the time, a very popular text on the subject and is still in use in the legislature of the State of Washington.
Biographies of the life of Thomas Brackett Reed have been written by Samuel McCall (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914), William A. Robinson (Dodd, Mead & Company, 1930), and Richard Stanley Offenberg (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1963). Most recently, finance writer James Grant wrote the biography entitled, Mr. Speaker! The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed: the Man who Broke the Filibuster. One chapter of Barbara Tuchman's The Proud Tower is substantially devoted to Reed.
- "GENEALOGICAL AND FAMILY HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MAINE". dunhamwilcox.net.
- Chase, Henry (1893), Representative Men of Maine: A Collection of Portraits with Biographical Sketches of Residents of the State, Who Have Achieved Success And are Prominent in the Commercial, Industrial, Professional and Political Life, To which is Added the Portraits and Sketches of All the Governors Since the Formation of the State, Portland, Maine: Lakeside Press, p. 11.
- Samuel W. McCall, Thomas B. Reed (1924) ch 1–3
- Hinman, Ida (1895). The Washington Sketch Book. HardPress Publishing. ISBN 978-1313841986. (reproduction from January 28, 2013)
- Thomas B. Reed (ME). "House of Representatives, Thursday, April 22, 1880." Congressional Record 10 (1880) p. 2661. (Text from: Congressional Record Permanent Digital Collection); Accessed: May 9, 2020.
- Samuel W. McCall, Thomas B. Reed (1914) pp 152–72; among scholars in parliamentary law, the battle is quoted by G. Buonomo (2001). "La questione del quorum muto nella prassi parlamentare italiana e comparata". Rassegna parlamentare (in Italian) (2 ed.)..
- Price, Douglas H. "The Congressional Career—Then and Now," in Nelson Polsby, ed., Congressional Behavior (New York: Random House, 1971), p. 19.
- Representative Thomas B. Reed, remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 61, Jan. 29, 1890, p. 948.
- Roger Place Butterfield, The American Past (1966) p. 254
- House Document No. 108-204: The Cannon Centenary Conference: The Changing Nature of the Speakership
- Wendy Hazard, "Thomas Brackett Reed, Civil Rights, and the Fight for Fair Elections," Maine History, March 2004, Vol. 42 Issue 1, pp 1–23
- Samuel W. McCall, Thomas B. Reed (1914) pp 231–39
- Grant, James (2012-05-15). Mr. Speaker!: The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed - The Man Who Broke the Filibuster. Simon and Schuster. p. 373. ISBN 9781416544944. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- Twain, Mark (December 20, 1902). "Thomas Brackett Reed". Harper's Weekly: 1979. via: Charles Neider, ed. (1963). The Complete Essays of Mark Twain. New Jersey: Doubleday. pp. 311–312. and "Tribute to Thomas Brackett Reed by Mark Twain". Thomas Brackett Reed. Robert Klotz, University of Southern Maine. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- "Obituary Augustus G. Paine". New York Times. March 27, 1915. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- "Reed's Estate Trebles". Sacramento Union (Volume 112, Number 59). 22 October 1906. p. 2. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- Grant, James (2012-05-15). Mr. Speaker!: The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed - The Man Who Broke the Filibuster. Simon and Schuster. p. 374. ISBN 9781416544944. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Reed House". Reed House formerly Alpha Eta of Chi Psi was dedicated on September 28, 2007 in memory of Thomas Brackett Reed (1839–1902)
- Robert Klotz. "Portland Locations with National Political Significance". Portland Political Trail. Accessed April 21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2009-04-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Anon. Exercises at the Unveiling of the Statue of Thomas Brackett Reed, at Portland, Maine, August Thirty-First, Nineteen Hundred and Ten. Read Books. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4086-6921-1.
- Grant, James (2011). Mr. Speaker!. Simon & Schuster.
- Hazard, Wendy. "Thomas Brackett Reed, Civil Rights, and the Fight for Fair Elections," Maine History, March 2004, Vol. 42 Issue 1, pp 1–23
- McCall, Samuel W. (1914). The Life of Thomas Brackett Reed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Strahan, Randall (2007). Leading Representatives: The Agency of Leaders in the Politics of the U.S. House. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8691-0.
- Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim (1996). The proud tower: a portrait of the world before the war, 1890–1914. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-40501-2.
- Thomas, Evan. The War Lovers, Little, Brown and Co, 2010
- Valelly, Richard M., “The Reed Rules and Republican Party Building A New Look,” Studies in American Political Development, 23 (Oct. 2009), 115–42. online
- Roosevelt, Theodore; Reed, Thomas B. "'Dear Tom,' 'Dear Theodore': The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas B. Reed," edited by R. Hal Williams, Theodore Roosevelt Association Journal, July 1994, Vol. 20 Issue 3/4, pp3–22, 20p. 23 letters from 1888–1902 discuss the Republican Party and its leaders, foreign policy, the gold and silver issues, New York State politics, and TR's activity as police commissioner of New York City.
- United States Congress. "Thomas Brackett Reed (id: R000128)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Works by Thomas Brackett Reed at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Thomas Brackett Reed at Internet Archive
- Reed's Rules, a manual of general parliamentary law (1894) https://web.archive.org/web/20111124165208/http://www.leg.wa.gov/documents/legislature/reedsrules/reeds.htm
- Political cartoon, NY Times/Harper's Weekly, December 21, 1895 Our American Czar and His Do-Nothing Policy
- Thomas Brackett Reed at Find a Grave
- C-SPAN Q&A interview with James Grant about Mr. Speaker! The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed, The Man Who Broke the Filibuster, June 5, 2011
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
William P. Frye
| Maine Attorney General
Harris M. Plaisted
|U.S. House of Representatives|
John H. Burleigh
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Maine's 1st congressional district
March 4, 1877 – September 4, 1899
Amos L. Allen
John G. Carlisle
| Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
December 2, 1889 – March 4, 1891
Charles F. Crisp
Charles F. Crisp
| Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
December 2, 1895 – March 4, 1897;
March 15, 1897 – March 4, 1899
David B. Henderson