The Oklahoma Portal
The flag of Oklahoma (; Oklahoma Choctaw: , Oklahumma pronounced ; [oklahómma] Cherokee: ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ, , Okalahoma pronounced ) is a [ògàlàhǒːmã́] state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas to the south and west, Kansas to the north, Missouri to the northeast, Arkansas to the east, New Mexico to the west, and Colorado to the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.
The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words , 'people' and okla , which translates as 'red'. Oklahoma is also known informally by its humma nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the Sooners, settlers who staked their claims in the Unassigned Lands before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 authorized the Land Rush of 1889.
The land now known as Oklahoma has been inhabited since at least the
last ice age. The Southern Plains villagers and the Mississippian people inhabited the area between roughly 800 and 1500. The Southern Plains Panhandle culture developed in the Oklahoma Panhandle in western Oklahoma while the Caddoan Mississippian culture inhabited the eastern parts of the state and included the major settlement of Spiro Mounds. The area was also inhabited by the Wichita people, Tonkawa people, and Caddo people. Between 1300 and 1500, the Plains Apache migrated into the Southern Great Plains (now western Oklahoma). During the 1700s, the Comanche people, Kiowa people, Osage people, and Quapaw people migrated into the region.
The first European contact with the region was the
Spanish explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado in 1541. However, the land was claimed by the Kingdom of France's Louisiana colony and included in the Louisiana Purchase to the United States in 1803. Oklahoma was part of District of Louisiana (1804–1805), Louisiana Territory (1805–1812), Missouri Territory (1812–1821), Arkansas Territory (1819–1828), before finally being designated Indian Territory. In the 1830s, the United States began forcibly removing Native Americans to Indian Territory, with the most famous instance being the deportation of the Five Civilized Tribes ( Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee, and the Seminole) which became known as the Trail of Tears. During the American Civil War, the Five Tribes formally sided with the Confederate States of America, while some tribal members served in the Union-aligned Indian Home Guard. After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished by treaty in the Five Tribes. Between 1866 and 1899, the cattle trails from Texas to Kansas ran through the territory. The Dawes Act of 1887 began the allotment of most Oklahoma tribes and the Curtis Act of 1898 authorized the allotment of the Five Tribes territory. The Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 authorized the Land Rush of 1889 in the Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory. In 1890,
Oklahoma Territory was formed out of the western half of Indian Territory. After an attempt to make Indian Territory into the State of Sequoyah failed in 1905, Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907.
The 20th century discovery of
petroleum led to the development of a powerful oil industry. In the 1910s and 1920s, Oklahoma experience major instances of civil unrest with the Green Corn Rebellion and the Tulsa Race Massacre. In the 1930s, the Dust Bowl led to mass emigration from the state. Conservation efforts in the state reversed population declines in 1950 and continued through the 1960s. In 1995, the state was the site of one of the largest domestic terror attacks, the Oklahoma City Bombing. In the 21st century, the United States Supreme Court ruled in that the McGirt v. Oklahoma Muscogee Nation reservation was never disestablished. The ruling led to similar rulings regarding the other Five Tribes ( Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation, Chickasaw Nation and Seminole Nation of Oklahoma). ( )
Northeastern State University (NSU) is a public university with its main campus located in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, at the foot of the Ozark Mountains. Northeastern's home, Tahlequah, is also the capital of The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. The university also has two other campuses in Muskogee and Broken Arrow.
The school was founded on May 7, 1851, as the
. On March 6, 1909, the State Legislature of Oklahoma passed an act providing for the creation and location of Northeastern State Normal School at Cherokee National Female Seminary Tahlequah, Oklahoma, and for the purchase from the Cherokee Tribal Government of the building, land, and equipment of the Cherokee Female Seminary. In the 1950s Northeastern emerged as a comprehensive state college, broadening its curriculum at the baccalaureate level to encompass liberal arts subjects and adding a fifth year program designed to prepare master teachers for elementary and secondary schools. In 1974, the Oklahoma Legislature authorized that the name of the institution be changed from Northeastern State Normal School to Northeastern Oklahoma State University and then again in 1985 to Northeastern State University.
(Read more . . . ) Spotlight city -
is the Ardmore county seat of Carter County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 24,725 at the time of the 2020 census, a 1.8% increase over the 2010 census figure of 24,283. The Ardmore micropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 48,491 in 2013. Ardmore is 90 miles (140 km) from both Oklahoma City and Dallas/ Fort Worth, Texas, at the junction of Interstate 35 and U.S. Highway 70, and is generally considered the hub of the 13-county region of South Central Oklahoma, also known by state tourism pamphlets as " Chickasaw Country" and previously "Lake and Trail Country". It is also a part of the Texoma region. Ardmore is situated about 9 miles (14 km) south of the Arbuckle Mountains and is located at the eastern margin of the Healdton Basin, one of the most oil-rich regions of the United States.
Ardmore was named after the affluent Philadelphia suburb and historic
PRR Main Line
, which was named after
, by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1873. The name "Ardmore" is
for high grounds or hills. (
List of spotlight cities
Tulsa, Oklahoma Oklahoma City El Reno, Oklahoma Muskogee, Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Sand Springs, Oklahoma McAlester, Oklahoma Coweta, Oklahoma Durant, Oklahoma Enid, Oklahoma Bartlesville, Oklahoma Edmond, Oklahoma Moore, Oklahoma Drumright, Oklahoma Ponca City, Oklahoma Tahlequah, Oklahoma Ada, Oklahoma Cushing, Oklahoma Jenks, Oklahoma Shawnee, Oklahoma Broken Arrow, Oklahoma Selected picture
Credit: Jon Sullivan
Oklahoma's state insect, the
Featured content State facts
Oklahoma State Capitol building
Nickname:The Sooner State
Capital and largest city: Oklahoma City
Governor: Kevin Stitt ( R)
Total area: 181,196 square kilometers (69,960 square miles)
Population (2020 census): 3,959,353
Date admitted to the Union: November 16, 1907
Senators: Markwayne Mullin (R), James Lankford (R) Representatives : Kevin Hern (R), Josh Brecheen (R), Frank Lucas (R), Tom Cole (R), Stephanie Bice (R)
The Scissortail Flycatcher, Oklahoma's state bird Selected biography
Charles Nathaniel Haskell (March 13, 1860 – July 5, 1933) was an American lawyer, oilman, and statesman who served as the first Governor of Oklahoma. Haskell played a crucial role in drafting the Oklahoma Constitution as well as Oklahoma's statehood and admission into the United States as the 46th state in 1907. Haskell is also remembered as a prominent resident of Muskogee, Oklahoma and helped to bring the city to prominence throughout Oklahoma.
Throughout his administration as Governor, Haskell’s practical mind, intuitive knowledge of the law, and his insight into what the law should be enabled him to discern the underlying principles of any issue. Though firmly a Democrat, Haskell found the middle ground and usually brought the belligerent bipartisan forces and rival interests into friendly agreement.
Charles Haskell Elementary in
Edmond, Oklahoma, and Charles N. Haskell Middle School in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma are named in his honor. ( )
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