Battle of Old Fort Wayne

During the American Civil War, the Union Army, also called the Northern Army, referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Also known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States as a working, viable republic.

Union private infantry uniform

The Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified, augmented, and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and ultimately triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War.

Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army,[1] including 178,895 colored troops; 25% of the white men who served were foreign-born.[2] Of these soldiers, 596,670 were killed, wounded or went missing.[3] The initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years.

Recruiting poster for the 1st Battalion New York Mounted Rifles

Formation

When the American Civil War began in April 1861, the U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and three of mounted infantry. The regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, and the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River, mostly along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. There were only 16,367 men in the U.S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. Approximately 20% of these officers — most of them Southerners — resigned, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy.[4]

In addition, almost 200 West Point graduates who had previously left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Braxton Bragg, returned to service at the outbreak of the war. This group's loyalties were far more evenly divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the United States Army.

With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the United States, and with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection. Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or even imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861. That was the day that Congress initially approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause.

The call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners, abolitionists, and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 German Americans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincoln's call, along with Northern French Americans, who were also quick to volunteer. As more men were needed, however, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Many Southern Unionists would also fight for the Union Army. An estimated 100,000 white soldiers from states within the Confederacy served in Union Army units.[5] Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the United States Army, of whom the majority were volunteers.

It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U.S. Military Academy on the active list; of these, 296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were then civilians, 400 returned to the United States Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of U.S. Army to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283.[6] (One of the resigning officers was Robert E. Lee, who had initially been offered the assignment as commander of a field army to suppress the rebellion. Lee disapproved of secession, but refused to bear arms against his native state, Virginia, and resigned to accept the position as commander of Virginian C.S. forces. He eventually became the commander of the Confederate army.) The South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. As they usually had to either desert or wait until their enlistment term was over in order to join the Confederate States Army; their total number is unknown.

Organization

General George B. McClellan with staff and dignitaries (from left to right): Gen. George W. Morell, Lt. Col. A.V. Colburn, Gen. McClellan, Lt. Col. N.B. Sweitzer, Prince de Joinville (son of King Louis Philippe of France), and on the very right – the prince's nephew, Count de Paris

Leadership

President Abraham Lincoln exercised supreme command and control over the Army in his capacity as commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. Below him was the Secretary of War, who oversaw the administration of the Army, and the General-in-Chief, who directed the field operations of the Army. At the start of the war, Simon Cameron served as Secretary of War before being replaced in January 1862 by Edwin Stanton. The role of General-in-Chief was filled by several men during the course of the war:[7]

The gap from March 11 to July 23, 1862, was filled with direct control of the army by President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton, with the help of an unofficial "War Board" that was established on March 17, 1862. The board consisted of Ethan A. Hitchcock, the chairman, with Department of War bureau chiefs Lorenzo Thomas, Montgomery C. Meigs, Joseph G. Totten, James W. Ripley, and Joseph P. Taylor.[8]

Reporting directly to the Secretary of War were the bureau chiefs or heads of staff departments which made up the Department of War. These included, at the onset of the war, the Adjutant General, Inspector General, Paymaster-General, Judge Advocate General, Chief of Engineers, Chief of Topographical Engineers, Quartermaster General, Commissary General of Subsistence, Chief of Ordnance, and Surgeon General.

After the war started, the position of Provost Marshal General was also created.[7] Originally established on September 24, 1862, as an office in the Adjutant General's department under Simeon Draper, it was made an independent department in its own right on May 1, 1863, under James B. Fry.[9] The Signal Corps was created and deployed for the first time, through the leadership of Albert J. Myer.

One drawback to this system was that the authority and responsibilities of the Secretary of War, his Assistant Secretaries, and the General-in-Chief were not clearly delineated. Additionally, the efforts of the four "supply" departments (Quartermaster, Subsistence, Ordnance & Medical) were not coordinated with each other, a condition that would last throughout the war. Although the "War Board" could provide military advice and help coordinate military policy, it was not until the appointment of Ulysses Grant as General-in-Chief was there more than the vaguest coordination of military strategy and logistics.[7]

Major organizations

The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically.

Military division
A collection of Departments reporting to one commander (e.g., Military Division of the Mississippi, Middle Military Division, Military Division of the James). Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater; and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with, the existing theaters of war.
Department
An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied. It was more common to name departments for rivers (such as Department of the Tennessee, Department of the Cumberland) or regions (Department of the Pacific, Department of New England, Department of the East, Department of the West, Middle Department).
District
A territorial subdivision of a Department (e.g., District of Cairo, District of East Tennessee). There were also Subdistricts for smaller regions.
Army
The fighting force that was usually, but not always, assigned to a District or Department but could operate over wider areas. An army could contain between one and eight corps, with an average of three.[10] Some of the most prominent armies were:

Each of these armies was usually commanded by a major general. Typically, the Department or District commander also had field command of the army of the same name, but some conflicts within the ranks occurred when this was not true, particularly when an army crossed a geographic boundary.

The commanding officer of an army was authorized a number of aide-de-camps as their personal staff and a general staff. It included representatives of the other combat arms, such as a chief of artillery and chief of cavalry (the infantry being typically represented by the commanding officer) and representatives of the staff bureaus and offices.[11] The staff department officers typically assigned to an army or military department included an Assistant Adjutant General, a Chief Quartermaster, a Chief Commissary of Subsistence, an Assistant Inspector General, an Ordnance Officer (all with the rank of Colonel) and a Medical Director.[12]

The 21st Michigan Infantry, a regiment serving in the Western Theater.
Washington, District of Columbia. Officers of 3d Regiment Massachusetts Heavy Artillery (1865)

Tactical organization

Corps

A corps was commanded by a major general and consisted of between two and six divisions, with an average of three, for approximately 36,000 men.[10][13] Corps had not existed in the United States Army prior to the Civil War, although the term was often used to refer to any large portion of an army. Corps were first legally authorized by an Act of 17 July 1862.[10] Initially, corps were designated in relationship to the army they operated under, i.e. I Corps, Army of the Potomac. Eventually the practice of numbering corps without reference to higher command was adopted.[14][15]

For a corps the number of staff officers authorized included an Assistant Adjutant General, a Quartermaster, an Assistant Inspector General, a Commissary of Subsistence, an Ordnance Officer (all of whom held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel) and a Medical Director.[12]

Division

A division was the smallest "self-sufficient" unit of the Union Army. It was commanded by a major general and consisted of between two and five brigades for approximately 12,000 men.[10][13] On average an infantry division consisted of three brigades, while a cavalry division consisted of two.[10] Divisions were considered to be the Army's basic administrative and organizational unit during the Civil War. They were numbered sequentially within their corps but often referred to by the name of their commanding officer in official reports.[14][15]

The exact composition of a division varied during the course of the war. For example, in the Army of the Potomac a division was initially constructed around three infantry brigades, a cavalry regiment, and four batteries of artillery. After the Peninsula campaign the cavalry were removed to form their own brigades under army control, with each corps retaining a squadron for various duties, and after Joseph Hooker took command they were organized into a dedicated corps of three division, each with two brigades of cavalry and assigned horse artillery. Likewise the artillery were reorganized into their own brigades, first as an artillery reserve for the army until after Chancellorsville when they were placed under direct corps control.[15]

Staff officers authorized to a division included an Assistant Adjutant General, a Quartermaster, an Assistant Inspector General, a Commissary of Subsistence, an Ordnance Officer (all with the rank of Major) and a Surgeon.[12]

Brigade

A brigade was commanded by a brigadier general and consisted of on average four regiments for approximately 4,000 men.[10][13] However, infantry brigades could contain as few as two or as many as twelve regiments, while cavalry brigades could have between two and eight regiments.[10] Because a system for replacing losses was practically non-existent, new regiments would simply be added to an existing brigade to bring its strength up to at least 2,000 men. While this could result in a mixture of veteran but smaller regiments grouped with larger novice regiments, it allowed the brigade to remain a consistently-sized unit that commanders could maneuver. Artillery was also organized into brigades but each contained only four to six batteries, were led by a Colonel and placed under the control of a parent corps. Early experiments at combined arms brigades were abandoned as the war progress, leaving brigades consisting of all just one type.[14]

Brigades were numbered based on their position within their parent division, but could also acquire nicknames even when this designation changed. Famous examples included the Iron Brigade and the Irish Brigade. Brigades also used distinctive identifying flags for the first time during the Civil War. An initial generic design was eventually replaced with a triangular flag which would have the symbol of their parent corps and be color-coded to designate brigade and division numbering within the corps.[14]

Staff officers authorized to a brigade included an Assistant Adjutant General, an Assistant Quartermaster/Ordnance Officer, an Assistant Commissary of Subsistence (all with the rank of Captain) and a Surgeon.[12]

Regiment

The regiment was the fundamental unit of mustering, training and maneuvering in the Union Army. Commanded by a Colonel, an infantry regiment nominally consisted of ten companies for approximately 1,000 men.[10][13] However, attrition could reduce a regiment down to as few as 100 men.[10] Cavalry regiments typically consisted of four to six squadrons of two companies each, numbering between 660 and over 1,000 men.[10] An artillery regiment consisted of between eight and twelve batteries[16] and averaged 1,800 men.[10] Heavy artillery regiments were smaller with an average of 1,200 men in twelve batteries, but many were converted to infantry regiments rather than remain in garrison duty.[10]

Most logistical work was carried out at the regimental level, but unlike higher echelons the staff authorized to a regiment consisted of its own officers detailed to the position. The number of staff officers also depended on whether it was a Regular Army or Volunteer regiment and which combat arm to which it belonged. Regular infantry and cavalry regiments were authorized a regimental Adjutant, a Quartermaster/Commissary, an Ordnance Officer (all of Lieutenant rank), a Chaplain, and an Ordnance Sergeant. Regular artillery regiments were the same with the addition of a Commissary Sergeant, Quartermaster Sergeant, and Hospital Steward.[17] Volunteer infantry and artillery regiments were similar to Regular units but included, a quartermaster sergeant, a commissary sergeant, a hospital steward, a surgeon and two assistant surgeons. Volunteer cavalry regiments replaced one of the assistant surgeons with another hospital steward and added another lieutenant as regimental commissary, a saddler sergeant, and a chief farrier or blacksmith.[16]

Battalion

An infantry battalion had no set definition in the United States Regular Army during the Civil War, only that every part of a regiment composed of two or more companies was designated a battalion.[10] Sometimes if a regiment only consisted of between four and eight companies it would be referred to as a battalion.[13] The cavalry equivalent was referred to as a Squadron and typically consisted to two companies.[10] Unlike the infantry, cavalry typically fought on the battlefield as squadrons.[14] However, there were no Volunteer battalions, and many Regular units would eventually abandon the concept.[16]

Staff officers authorized for an infantry battalion included an adjutant, quartermaster/commissary, quartermaster sergeant, commissary sergeant, and hospital steward. Cavalry squadrons included a saddler sergeant and veterinary sergeant.[17]

Company

A company was traditionally the smallest military unit and typically organized and recruited in a local community.[10] Commanded by a Captain, an infantry company was approximately 100 men, with between 64 and 83 privates and 19 officers and other personnel. Companies were designated with a letter from A to K (minus J as it looked too much like I).[10][13] Companies could be subdivided into smaller units, including platoons, squads, sections and patrols.[10] Infantry companies were not authorized any logistical personnel until after 6 September 1862 when Volunteer units could include a wagoner.[16]

The cavalry equivalent was referred to as a Troop and could range from 79 and 105 men. Regular troops were authorized a company quartermaster sergeant, a saddler, two farriers and a wagoner; Volunteer troops added two teamsters and a commissary sergeant.[10][16] The artillery equivalent was a battery and consisted of between 80 156 men with between four and six artillery pieces. Both Regular and Volunteer units were authorized a quartermaster sergeant, a wagoner, and between two and six artificers.[10][16]

Personnel

The champions of the Union – 1861 lithograph by Currier & Ives
Noncommissioned officers of the 93rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment

Regulars vs Volunteers

During the course of the Civil War, the vast majority of soldiers fighting to preserve the Union were in the Volunteer units. The pre-war Regular Army numbered approximately 16,400 soldiers, but by the end while the Union Army had grown sixty-two-fold to over a million men the number of Regular personnel was still approximately 21,699, a number of whom were serving with volunteer forces. Only 62,000 commissions and enlistments in total were issued for the Regular Army during the war as most new personnel preferred volunteer service.[18][19]

Since before the Civil War the American public had a general negative view of the nation's armed force, attributable to a Jeffersonian ideal which saw standing armies as a threat to democracy and instead valorized the "citizen soldier" as being more in keeping with American ideals of equality and rugged individualism.[20] This attitude remained unchanged during the Civil War, and afterwards many would attribute the Union's victory to the Volunteers rather than the leadership and staff work provided by the Regular Army.[21] In return, officers of the Regular Army despised the militia and saw them as having dubious value. Commentators such as Emory Upton would later argue that the reliance on militia for the nation's defense was responsible for prolonging conflicts and making them more expensive in both money and lives spent.[20][21]

Despite these attitudes towards the Regulars, they would serve as an important foundation around which the Union Army was built. In the disastrous First Battle of Bull Run, it was the Regulars who acted as rearguard during the retreat while the Volunteers fled, and when George McClellan was put in charge of what became the Army of the Potomac he used Regular officers and non-commissioned officers to train the Volunteers.[22] Training the Volunteers, especially in regards to critical administrative and logistical matters, remained an important function of the Regulars during the war.[23] This was particularly the case with Regular Army artillery, as they were more widely dispersed than the infantry and cavalry (making them more visible to the Volunteers) and were assigned to specific units to train their Volunteer counterparts.[24]

In battle, the Regulars' performance could impress even the most battle-hardened Volunteers.[25] At The Wheatfield during the Battle of Gettysburg, the Regulars' fighting skill and orderly retirement under fire drew the admiration of many observers, including Prince Philippe, Count of Paris. As one Volunteer put it, "For two years the U.S. Regulars taught us how to be soldiers [;] in the Wheatfield at Gettysburg, they taught us how to die like soldiers."[26] The Regulars became the standard by which the Volunteers were measured, and to be described as being as good or better than them was considered the highest compliment.[27]

Officers

Commissioned officers in the Union Army could be divided in several categories: general officers including Lieutenant General (added on March 2, 1864), Major Generals and Brigadier Generals; field officers including Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels and Majors; and company officers including Captains, First Lieutenants and Second Lieutenants. There was a further distinction between "line" officers - members of the artillery, cavalry or infantry branches - and staff officers, which were part of the various departments and bureaus of the War Department. All line officers outranked staff officers except in cases pertaining to their staff assignment, in which they received their orders from their respective department chiefs.[28] Additionally, Regular general officers outranked Volunteer general officers of the same grade regardless of their date of commission, a feature which could become a subject of contention.[29] The use of brevet ranks was also a common feature of the Union Army.

Officer appointments depended on the commission grade and whether it was in the Regular or Volunteer forces. The President reserved the right to issue commission for all Regular officers and for general officers in the volunteer forces. Volunteer field officers could be commissioned by either the President or their respective Governor. Company officers were unique in that they were usually elected by members of their company and subsequently commissioned by the President or their Governor.[28]

Officers tended to suffer a higher percentage of battle wounds on account of either the necessity of leading their units into combat an their conspicuousness when accompanied by staff and escorts.[30]

Among memorable field leaders of the army were Nathaniel Lyon (first Union general to be killed in battle during the war), William Rosecrans, George Henry Thomas and William Tecumseh Sherman. Others, of lesser competence, included Benjamin F. Butler.

Black people in the Union Army

Portrait of an African American Union soldier at Benton Barracks

The inclusion of black people as combat soldiers became a major issue. Eventually, it was realized, especially after the valiant effort of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Fort Wagner, that black people were fully able to serve as competent and reliable soldiers. This was partly due to the efforts of Robert Smalls, who, while still a slave, won fame by defecting from the Confederacy and bringing a Confederate transport ship which he was piloting. He later met with Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War, to argue for including blacks in combat units. This led to the formation of the first combat unit for black soldiers, the 1st South Carolina Volunteers. Regiments for black soldiers were eventually referred to as United States Colored Troops. Black Soldiers were paid less than white Soldiers until late in the war and were, in general, treated harshly.

Motivations

Anti-slavery sentiment

In his 1997 book examining the motivations of the American Civil War's soldiers, For Cause and Comrades, historian James M. McPherson states that Union soldiers fought to preserve the United States, as well as to end slavery, stating that:

While restoration of the Union was the main goal for which they fought, they became convinced that this goal was unattainable without striking against slavery.

— James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War, (1997), p. 118, emphasis added.[31]

McPherson states that witnessing the slave system of the Confederacy first-hand also strengthened the anti-slavery views of Union soldiers,[31] who were appalled by its brutality.[31] He stated that "Experience in the South reinforced the antislavery sentiments of many soldiers."[31] One Pennsylvanian Union soldier spoke to a slave woman whose husband was whipped, and was appalled by what she had to tell him of slavery. He stated that "I thought I had hated slavery as much as possible before I came here, but here, where I can see some of its workings, I am more than ever convinced of the cruelty and inhumanity of the system."[31]

Ethnic composition

The 26th U.S. Colored Volunteer Infantry on parade, Camp William Penn, Pennsylvania, 1865

The Union Army was composed of many different ethnic groups, including large numbers of immigrants. About 25% of the white men who served in the Union Army were foreign-born.[2] This means that about 1,600,000 enlistments were made by men who were born in the United States, including about 200,000 African Americans. About 200,000 enlistments were by men born in one of the German states (although this is somewhat speculative since anyone serving from a German family tended to be identified as German regardless of where they were actually born)[citation needed].[32] About 200,000 soldiers and sailors were born in Ireland. Although some soldiers came from as far away as Malta, Italy, India, and Russia, most of the remaining foreign-born soldiers came from Great Britain and Canada.

Twenty-year-old German immigrant John Haag of Company B, 26th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment (August 1862)[33]
Breakdown of the approximately 2.2 million Union Enlistments signed:
Number Percent Origin
1,000,000 45.4 Native-born white Americans.
216,000 9.7 German-born
210,000 9.5 African-American. Half were freedmen who lived in the North, and half were ex-slaves from the South. They served under mainly white officers in more than 160 "colored" regiments and in Federal U.S. regiments organized as the United States Colored Troops (USCT).[34][35][36][37]
200,000 9.1 Irish-born
90,000 4.1 Dutch.
50,000 2.3 Canadian.[38]
50,000 2.3 Born in England.
40,000 1.8 French or French Canadian. About half were born in the United States of America, the other half in Quebec.[38]
20,000 0.9 Nordic, including Norwegian, Swedish (numbering roughly 3000),[39][40] Finnish, and Danish.
7,000 0.3 Italian
7,000 0.3 Jewish
6,000 0.2 Mexican
5,000 0.2 Polish (many of whom served in the Polish Legion of Brig. Gen. Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski)
4,000 0.1 Native Americans, mostly Lenape, Pamunkey, Lumbee, Seneca and Muscogee
295,000 6.4 Several hundred of other various nationalities

Many immigrant soldiers formed their own regiments, such as the Irish Brigade (69th New York, 63rd New York, 88th New York, 28th Massachusetts, 116th Pennsylvania); the Swiss Rifles (15th Missouri); the Gardes de Lafayette (55th New York); the Garibaldi Guard (39th New York); the Martinez Militia (1st New Mexico); the Polish Legion (58th New York); the ; Sigel Rifles (52nd New York, inheriting the 7th); the Cameron Highlanders (79th New York Volunteer Infantry); and the Scandinavian Regiment (15th Wisconsin). But for the most part, the foreign-born soldiers were scattered as individuals throughout units.[41]

For comparison, the Confederate Army was not very diverse: 91% of Confederate soldiers were native-born white men and only 9% were foreign-born white men, Irish being the largest group with others including Germans, French, Mexicans (though most of them simply happened to have been born when the Southwest was still part of Mexico), and British. Some Confederate propaganda condemned foreign-born soldiers in the Union Army, likening them to the hated Hessians of the American Revolution. Also, a relatively small number of Native Americans (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek) fought for the Confederacy.

Army administration and issues

Adjutant General's Department

The responsibilities and functions of the Adjutant General's Department (AGD) were many and varied during the course of the Civil War, but principle among them was handling military correspondence between the President, Secretary of War and General-in-Chief, and the rest of the Army. Other functions included administering recruitment, overseeing the appointment of chaplains, maintaining personnel records, and issuing instruction books and other forms. During the war, some of the department's responsibilities and functions were spun off to new offices while new ones were added. The recruitment of new white Volunteers and draftees, and the suppression and punishment of absenteeism and desertion, was given to the newly-formed Provost Marshal General's Bureau in May 1863, while the position of was created to take over this function from the AGD. The Bureau of Colored Troops was created within the AGD specifically to oversee the creation of the United States Colored Troops, and in the final year of the war the AGD was given the responsibility for collecting and editing documents which would constitute The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.[42]

At the start of the Civil War, the AGD numbered just fourteen Regular Officers: the Adjutant General (AG) with the rank of colonel, a lieutenant-colonel, four brevet majors, and eight brevet captains. In August 1861 the AG was raised to major-general and the strength of the AGD increased to twenty officers, and a year later it was reorganized to constitute the AG, two colonels, four lieutenant-colonels, and thirteen majors. The small number of civilian clerical staff supporting the officers was also increased as the war progressed, including the addition of up to ten noncommissioned officers by 1862. However to meet the need for assistant adjutant generals authorized for each corps, division and brigade, appointments were made from among the Volunteer forces, and by 1865 there were an additional 85 majors and 256 captains serving in these capacities.[42]

In spite of the rapid increase of the Army at the start presenting numerous challenges and being perpetually understaffed throughout the war, the AGD appears to have handled its responsibilities competently and with little disruption. The AGD also had fewer conflicts with field commanders compared to some of the other departments, partly because it's authority was well-established and issued few controversial orders itself, and it was less affected by matters of procurement and emerging technologies.[42]

Leadership

Colonel Lorenzo Thomas was named Adjutant General of the army on March 7, 1861, one day after Col. Samuel Cooper resigned the join the Confederacy. While Thomas served as the AG throughout the entirety of the war, he eventually ran afoul of Secretary Stanton, who reassigned him to the job of recruiting soldiers for black regiments in the western theater. From March 1863 on then, the assistant adjutant general Colonel Edward D. Townsend essentially was the acting AG in Washington.[42]

Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

In March 1865 the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was created by Congress with a mandate to see to the needs of all Black freedmen and white refugees, and the management of all lands within the rebel states which had been abandoned or otherwise come into the possession of the United States. It consisted of a commissioner as head of the bureau, an assistant commissioner for each of the rebel states, and a small staff of one chief and nine other clerics. Additionally, any military officer could be assigned to duty on behalf of the bureau. Major General Oliver Otis Howard was appointed to head the bureau at it's creation and lead it throughout its lifetime. While the Freedman's Bureau was the center of much controversy during the Reconstruction era and some of the relief it provided less than satisfactory, it's most important contribution was in providing education to many Blacks and poor whites.[43]

Corps of Engineers

The Corps of Engineers was a small part of the Army prior to the Civil War but played an important role not only in the conflict but for the nation as a whole. The Corps was responsible for running the United States Military Academy at West Point, which supplied officers to all branches but whose top graduates were commissioned into the Corps. They were not only involved with military engineering such as constructing fortifications and harbor defenses but also oversaw civil engineering including building canals, bridges and similar projects. This focus on civil works did prevent the Corps from devoting its entire effort to the war though.[44][45] Corps personnel acted as combat engineers during battle, helping to construct pontoon bridges, repair roads and bridges, dig trenches, and conduct reconnaissance. The Corps also exerted an influence beyond its small size as many of the Union's most prominent officers, including McClellan and Meade, were themselves trained as engineers and used their knowledge to influence the outcome of battles.[44][46]

Prior to the war, the Corps of Engineers consisted of just forty-eight officers and a single company of 150 engineer troops. Engineer Company A was first created for the Mexican-American War and guarded President Lincoln at his first inauguration.[44][46] It was organized with ten sergeants (master-workmen), ten corporals (overseers), two musicians, sixty-four first-class privates (artificers) and sixty-four second-class privates (laborers).[47] In August 1861 Congress authorized the formation of three more companies to be organized the same as Engineer Company A, with all four organized into a single battalion (the US Engineer Battalion, later 1st Engineer Battalion), and the addition of two lieutenant colonels, four majors and six lieutenants to the Corps. The battalion had no formal headquarters but fell under the command of the most senior officer present. In March 1863, when the Corps of Topographical Engineers was disbanded and its function merged with the Corps of Engineers, Congress further revised the Corps of consist of a brigadier-general as chief engineer, four colonels, ten lieutenant-colonels, twenty majors, thirty captains, thirty first lieutenants and ten second lieutenants.[44][46]

The US Engineer Battalion served ably as part of the Army of the Potomac, but on its own was insufficient to see to the Army's need for engineers throughout the different theaters of war. A small number of Volunteer engineer regiments were formed during the war, including the 1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics Regiment, the 1st New York Engineer Regiment and the . However in many cases engineering work was carried out by line soldiers under the supervision of officers with engineering backgrounds, if any were available.[44][46]

Leadership

Corps of Topographical Engineers

The Corps of Topographical Engineers had been established in 1831 with the mission of exploration, surveying, and cartography, particularly in the American West. Topographical engineers (or "topogs") including John C. Frémont, Howard Stansbury, William H. Emory and Gouverneur K. Warren were instrumental in the westward expansion of the United States.[48] During the war, the civilian nature of the Corps' mission was largely suspended and it undertook the role of reconnaissance, construction of defensive works and supplying maps to the Army. In these conditions drawing a distinction between the two corps became increasingly impractical, until in March 1863 the Corps of Topographical Engineers was disbanded and its mission taken up by the Corps of Engineers.[44]

The Topographical Engineers numbered forty-five officers before the Civil War. In August 1861 an additional two lieutenant colonels, four majors and six lieutenants were authorized by Congress. There were no enlisted men in the Corps, although when the Corps was expanded Congress also authorized a company of engineers for the Topographical Engineers to be modeled after the Corps of Engineers. However this company was never formed, and the actual size of the Corps shrank as a number retired, died, defected to the Confederacy or became general officers of the Volunteers, until eventually the remaining officers were absorbed by the Corps of Engineers.[44]

The most important role played by the Topographical Engineers, even after their merge with the regular Corps, was providing desperately-needed maps to Army commanders. Each field army headquarters established their own topographical departments under the supervision of engineer officers, which would provide the army with maps necessary for a given campaign. Such departments themselves were staffed with teams of draughtsmen and assistants and stocked with printing presses, photographic and lithographic equipment.[44]

Leadership

The Chief of Topographical Engineers at the start of the Civil War was Colonel John James Abert. Colonel Abert had been responsible for lobbying Congress to make the Corps an independent branch of War Department and was appointed to lead his creation in 1838. He retired in September 1861 and was replaced by Stephen Harriman Long, who remained in the position until the Corps was disbanded. Thereafter he continued to serve in the Corps of Engineers as the senior officer to the Chief Engineer.[48][49]

Inspector General's Department

At the start of the Civil War, there was technically no Inspector General's Department, with neither a set of operating practices or centralized direction. Instead there were two Inspector Generals (IGs) with the rank of colonel whose duty was to conduct inspections and investigations to ensure the Army was organized and operating at full readiness, but these were done in an ad-hoc manner at the discretion of the Secretary of War. As the war progressed and membership in the inspectorate increased, the duties of IGs and assistant IGs were continually redefined, to the extent that any time a problem was identified the common response was simply to assign an inspector to it. Eventually in January 1863 a permanent office of the IG was established in Washington, and it was from here that the process of exerting a centralized control over IGs in the field and crafting standard policies and procedures was started.[50]

In August 1861, Congress authorized an increase of two additional IGs with the rank of colonel and five assistant IGs with the rank of major from among the Regular Army. This number stayed the same throughout the entire war, with the addition of a small civilian clerical staff once the Washington office was established. Congress eventually determined that each geographical department, army, corps, division and brigade would also be assigned an IG or assistant IG, however these positions were to be filled by Regular or Volunteer officers detailed from line units of the Army or from the other staff departments.[50]

The inspectorate faced many challenges during the Civil War, including hostility and lack of cooperation from some commanders and the mixed performance of some IGs in the field. Despite these issues it was able to successfully meet the challenges of the war overall, particularly with bringing under control the waste, fraud and abuse which had been rampant at the start of the conflict.[50]

Leadership

At the start of the war the inspectorate consisted of Colonel Sylvester Churchill, the senior IG of the Army, and Colonel Joseph K. Mansfield, the junior IG. Churchill however took leave in April 1861 on account of his health and formally retired in September that year, while Mansfield was promoted to major-general and left to command troops in May. Colonel Henry L. Scott replaced Mansfield that same month, but when Churchill retired his position was given to Colonel Randolph Marcy, father-in-law to George McClellan, in the same month. Serving as the chief-of-staff to McClellan, Marcy did not formally take up his duties as senior IG until after the Battle of Antietam, by which point however his association with McClellan had soured Marcy's relationship with Secretary Stanton, who sent him on inspection tours of various geographical departments. Instead, the de facto leader of the inspectorate was whoever was the IG in charge of the Washington office, which was Colonel Delos Sacket between January 1863 and March 1864, and Colonel James Allen Hardie for the remainder of the war.[50]

Medical Department

Office of the Judge Advocate

An office of the Judge Advocate had existed in the US Army since its founding, consisting at the start of the Civil War of a single officer with the rank of major and small civilian clerical staff in Washington. It was not until after the war began however that Congress formally authorized the appointment of a Judge Advocate General (JAG) and creation of the Bureau of Military Justice, a de facto department and forerunner to a true Judge Advocate General's Department. The principle functions of the JAG included conducting courts-martial and inquiries; codifying the laws of war and the military laws of the United States; reviewing the records of courts-martial, military commissions and inquiries; and asserting the jurisdiction of military commissions over civilians in times of war.[51]

To meet the demands of a vastly larger army, Congress authorized in July 1862 the appointment of a JAG with the rank of colonel and for President Lincoln to appoint a judge advocate of Volunteers with the rank of major for each army in the field. These judge advocates were to advise commanders on legal issues, prosecute offenses, and review and maintain the records of courts-martial and other proceedings in the field. A year later, Congress legislated the creation of the Bureau of Military Justice, gave it an appellant function, and authorized the JAG to head it as a brigadier general alongside an assistant JAG with the rank of colonel. With these authorizations came a small increase in the size of the clerical staff assisting the JAG.[51]

During the war the JAG and his subordinates were able to satisfactorily handle the increase volume and complexity of legal matters that came with the exponential growth of the Army. Among their most important accomplishments was the creation of the Lieber Code and, for the first time, collecting all precedents, decisions and opinions which had become US military law into a single digest and published in early 1865. One of the most controversial issues associated with the bureau was the use of military commissions to try civilians, an issue which would not be settled until Ex parte Milligan was decided in 1866.[51]

Leadership

The Civil War began with brevet Major John F. Lee serving as the judge advocate of the Army until September 3, 1862, when Joseph Holt was formally appointed as JAG. Holt played an important parts in helping to expanding the office of the JAG and oversaw some of the most important and sensitive trials of the war. However Holt also made many enemies while JAG and was severely criticized for his handling of the trial of President Lincoln's assassins.[51]

Ordnance Department

Pay Department

The Pay Department had the responsibility of accounting for, maintaining records regarding, and the disbursing of funds for payment to Army personnel, including allowances and bounties, as well as settling claims against the government related to pay and allowances. It was not however responsible for payments on contracts and other obligations incurred by the Army as those were handled by the respective department. Payments to officers and soldiers was supposed to be made on a bi-monthly basis, although circumstances might see these delayed significantly (as much as by eight months in some cases).[52]

As originally organized the Pay Department was headed by a paymaster general with the rank of colonel, two deputy paymasters general with the rank of lieutenant colonel, and twenty-five paymasters with the rank of major. There were also a small number of civilian clerks, but no enlisted personnel assigned to the department. Cash was received directly by the paymaster general from the Treasury Department and forwarded to the supervising paymaster of a given "pay district" or field headquarters. These funds were then distributed under armed guard to the officers and soldiers within the pay district. Pay districts generally coincided with the boundaries of military divisions, departments and districts, which as the Army grew the number and size of pay districts grew likewise. This required the appointment of more paymasters during the course of the war and an increase in the number of civilian clerks, the later of which reached a peak of 155 by 1864.[52]

The rapid increase in the size of the Army presented a significant challenge to the Pay Department, as the number of soldiers needed to be paid was over fifty times greater than the pre-war size. This was particularly the case for sick and wounded soldiers who were separated from their units and so harder to located. However while payments were occasionally delayed, it never got to the point where soldiers felt compelled to mutiny as had been done during the Revolution. In the four years and four months of the Civil War, the Payment Department disbursed $1,029,239,000 of which $541,000 was lost due to embezzlements and other causes, at an expense of $6,429,600.[52]

Leadership

When the Civil War began, Colonel Benjamin F. Larned served as Paymaster General but was in poor health. He was temporarily relieved of duty in July 1862 due to illness and would die a few months later. From July until December of that year, Major Cary H. Fry served as the acting Paymaster General, when Timothy Andrews was appointed to the position. He would remain in that position until retiring in November 1864, when Benjamin Brice was appointed in his place and finished out the war as Paymaster General. Both Andrews and Brice argued that the position of Paymaster General should made a brigadier general and the number and rank of subordinate paymasters similarly increased, commensurate with the type of expansion other administrative departments experienced during the war, but their recommendations were ignored.[52]

Provost Marshal General's Bureau

The Provost Marshal Genera's Bureau (PMGB) was created to oversee the apprehension of deserters, conduct counterespionage, and recover stolen government property. Originally established as an office of the AGD in September 1862, it was made an independent department in May 1863 as part of the Conscription Act of 3 March 1863. The Conscription Act also made it responsible for the administration of the draft system, with two other responsibilities added later that year: first with the management of the Invalid Corps in April, and then the recruitment of white volunteers in May. Intended only as temporary organization for the duration of the war the PMGB was effectively terminated in August 1866, whereupon all records, funds and responsibilities were transferred to the AGD.[9][53]

Initially consisting of a single officer, the provost marshal general (PMG) himself, eventually the bureau was authorized fourteen additional officers split between several branches. However, a mix of officers from the Regulars, Volunteers, and Invalid Corps were also detailed to the PMGB to fulfill a number of rolls. Each congressional district was appointed a provost marshal who served on a "board of enrollment." The board included two other persons (one of whom was to be a licensed physician) and was charged with overseeing the enrollment of men for the draft. An enrolling officer could also be appointed per subdistrict (town, township or ward) on a temporary basis, as could special agents tasked with apprehending deserters. Additionally, all provost marshals and special agents were empowered to arrest any stragglers and send them to the nearest military post. By November 1864 the PMGB (not counting the Invalid Corps) included 4,716 officers and employees.[53]

In the aggregate, the PMGB was successful in the enrollment and maintenance of sufficient manpower for the Union Army. Over one million men were brought into the Union Army at a cost of $9.84 per man (versus $34.01 per man prior to the bureau's formation) and the arrest and return to duty of over 76,500 deserters. The bureau was also able to raise $26 million to fully fund its enrollment and draft duties.[53]

Leadership

When originally created as an office of the AGD, Colonel Simeon Draper was named the Provost Marshal General, which he held from October 1862 to March 1863. However, the PMGB did not live up to expectations under Draper's leadership. When it was made an independent department he was replaced with James Barnet Fry, who served as the PMG until the bureau's dissolution.[53]

Quartermaster-General's Department

Included the U.S. Military Telegraph Corps, United States Military Railroad and Cavalry Bureau.

  • Joseph E. Johnston: June 20, 1860 – April 22, 1861
  • Ebenezer S. Sibly (acting): April 22, 1861 – June 13, 1861
  • Montgomery C. Meigs: June 13, 1861 – February 6, 1882
    • Charles Thomas (acting): August 1, 1863 – January 8, 1864

Signal Corps

Subsistence Department

Military tactics

The Civil War drove many innovations in military tactics.[54] W. J. Hardee published the first revised infantry tactics for use with modern rifles in 1855. However, even these tactics proved ineffective in combat, as it involved massed volley fire, in which entire units (primarily regiments) would fire simultaneously. These tactics had not been tested before in actual combat, and the commanders of these units would post their soldiers at incredibly close range, compared to the range of the rifled musket, which led to very high mortality rates. In a sense, the weapons had evolved beyond the tactics, which would soon change as the war drew to a close.[55] Military railways, occasionally used in earlier wars, provided mass movement of troops. The electric telegraph was used by both sides, which enabled political and senior military leaders to pass orders to and receive reports from commanders in the field.[56]

There were many other innovations brought by necessity. Generals were forced to reexamine the offensive-minded tactics developed during the Mexican–American War where attackers could mass to within 100 yards of the defensive lines, the maximum effective range of smoothbore muskets. Attackers would have to endure one volley of inaccurate smoothbore musket fire before they could close with the defenders. But by the Civil War, the smoothbores had been replaced with rifled muskets, using the quick loadable minié ball, with accurate ranges up to 900 yards. Defense now dominated the battlefield. Now attackers, whether advancing in ordered lines or by rushes, were subjected to three or four aimed volleys before they could get among the defenders. This made offensive tactics that were successful only 20 years before nearly obsolete.[57]

Desertions and draft riots

Desertion was a major problem for both sides. The daily hardships of war, forced marches, thirst, suffocating heat, disease, delay in pay, solicitude for family, impatience at the monotony and futility of inactive service, panic on the eve of battle, the sense of war-weariness, the lack of confidence in commanders, and the discouragement of defeat (especially early on for the Union Army), all tended to lower the morale of the Union Army and to increase desertion.[58][59]

In 1861 and 1862, the war was going badly for the Union Army and there were, by some counts, 180,000 desertions. In 1863 and 1864, the bitterest two years of the war, the Union Army suffered over 200 desertions every day, for a total of 150,000 desertions during those two years. This puts the total number of desertions from the Union Army during the four years of the war at nearly 350,000. Using these numbers, 15% of Union soldiers deserted during the war. Official numbers put the number of deserters from the Union Army at 200,000 for the entire war, or about 8% of Union Army soldiers. Since desertion is defined as being AWOL for 30 or more days and some soldiers returned within that time period, as well as some deserters being labeled missing-in-action or vice versa, accurate counts are difficult to determine. Many historians estimate the "real" desertion rate in the Union Army as between 9–12%.[60] About 1 out of 3 deserters returned to their regiments, either voluntarily or after being arrested and being sent back. Many deserters were professional "bounty jumpers" who would enlist to collect the cash bonus and then desert to do the same elsewhere. If not caught and executed, this crime could pay well.[61][62]

Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863

Irish immigrants were the main participants in the famous "New York Draft riots" of 1863.[63] Stirred up by the instigating rhetoric of Democratic politicians,[64] the Irish had shown the strongest support for Southern aims prior to the start of the war and had long opposed abolitionism and the free black population, regarding them as competition for jobs and blaming them for driving down wages. Alleging that the war was merely an upper-class abolitionist war to free slaves who might move north and compete for jobs and housing, the poorer classes did not welcome a draft, especially one from which a richer man could buy an exemption. The poor formed clubs that would buy exemptions for their unlucky members. As a result of the Enrollment Act, rioting began in several Northern cities, the most heavily hit being New York City. A mob reported as consisting principally of Irish immigrants rioted in the summer of 1863, with the worst violence occurring in July during the Battle of Gettysburg. The mob set fire to African American churches and the Colored Orphan Asylum as well as the homes of prominent Protestant abolitionists. A mob was reportedly repulsed from the offices of the staunchly pro-Union New York Tribune by workers firing two Gatling guns. The principal victims of the rioting were African Americans and activists in the anti-slavery movement. Not until victory was achieved at Gettysburg could the Union Army be sent in; some units had to open fire to quell the violence and stop the rioters. Casualties were estimated as up to 1,000 killed or wounded.[65] There were a few small scale draft riots in rural areas of the Midwest and in the coal regions of Pennsylvania.[66][67]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Civil War Facts". American Battlefield Trust. August 16, 2011.
  2. ^ a b McPherson, pp.36–37.
  3. ^ Civil War Casualties
  4. ^ Newell, Clayton R. The Regular Army before the Civil War, 1845–1860 (PDF). US Army Campaigns of the Civil War. US Army, Center of Military History. pp. 50, 52.
  5. ^ Crofts, Daniel W. CIVIL WAR SESQUICENTENNIAL: Unionism. digitalcommons.lsu.edu. Retrieved January 29, 2021
  6. ^ Hattaway & Jones, pp. 9–10.
  7. ^ a b c United States Army Logistics, 1775-1992: An Anthology. (1997). United States: Center of Military History, U.S. Army. p. 194-195
  8. ^ Eicher, pp. 37–38.
  9. ^ a b Eicher, p. 58
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Eicher, p. 65-66
  11. ^ Eicher, p. 40
  12. ^ a b c d Newell & Shrader, p. 71
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Civil War Army Organization and Rank". North Carolina Museum of History. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d e McGrath, p. 17-20
  15. ^ a b c Wilson, p. 12-15
  16. ^ a b c d e f United States Army Logistics, 1775-1992: An Anthology. (1997). United States: Center of Military History, U.S. Army. p. 196-198
  17. ^ a b Newell & Shrader, p. 70
  18. ^ Eicher, p. 46
  19. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 76
  20. ^ a b Newell & Shrader, p. 1-3
  21. ^ a b Newell & Shrader, p. 308-312
  22. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 210
  23. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 306-308
  24. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 283-285
  25. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 215-218
  26. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 235
  27. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 312
  28. ^ a b Eicher, p. 30
  29. ^ Eicher, p. 34
  30. ^ Eicher, p. 61
  31. ^ a b c d e McPherson, James M. (1997). For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War. New York City: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 118. ISBN 0-19-509-023-3. OCLC 34912692. Retrieved March 10, 2016. While restoration of the Union was the main goal for which they fought, they became convinced that this goal was unattainable without striking against slavery.
  32. ^ Sanitary Commission Report, 1869[clarification needed]
  33. ^ Chippewa County, Wisconsin Past and Present, Volume II. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1913. p. 258.
  34. ^ Joseph T. Glatthaar, Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers (2000)
  35. ^ McPherson, James M.; Lamb, Brian (May 22, 1994). "James McPherson: What They Fought For, 1861–1865". Booknotes. National Cable Satellite Corporation. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2016. About 180,000 black soldiers and an estimated 10,000 black sailors fought in the Union Army and Navy, all of them in late 1862 or later, except for some blacks who enrolled in the Navy earlier.
  36. ^ "General Orders No. 14". Civil War on the Western Border: The Missouri-Kansas Conflict, 1855–1865. Kansas City: The Kansas City Public Library. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. [V]ery few blacks serve in the Confederate armed forces, as compared to hundreds of thousands who serve for the Union.
  37. ^ Foner, Eric (October 27, 2010). "Book Discussion on The Fiery Trial". C-SPAN. Washington, D.C. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
  38. ^ a b Loewen, James W. (2007). Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: The New Press. ISBN 9781595586537. Retrieved March 8, 2016. Forty thousand Canadians alone, some of them black, came south to volunteer for the Union cause.
  39. ^ Nels., Hokanson (1979). Swedish immigrants in Lincoln's time. Arno Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-405-11640-3. OCLC 499809002.
  40. ^ Sundvall, Samuel (2019). "The Swedish and Swedish-American Press During the United States Civil War". The Swedish-American Historical Quarterly. 70: 35–54.
  41. ^ The 52nd New York State Volunteers
  42. ^ a b c d Newell & Shrader, p. 85-90
  43. ^ Newell & Shrader, p. 106-107
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h Newell & Shrader, p. 285-292
  45. ^ Baldwin, W. (2008). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: A History. United States: Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Office of History. p. 15-18
  46. ^ a b c d Baldwin, p. 107-110
  47. ^ Callan, J. F. (1864). The Military Laws of the United States, Relating to the Army, Volunteers, Militia, and to Bounty Lands and Pensions, from the Foundation of the Government to 4 July, 1864: To which are Prefixed the Constitution of the United States (with an Index Thereto,) and a Synopsis of the Military Legislation of Congress During the Revolutionary War. United States: G.W. Childs. p. 24-25
  48. ^ a b Baldwin, p. 21-27
  49. ^ Baldwin, p. 283
  50. ^ a b c d Newell & Shrader, p. 90-94
  51. ^ a b c d Newell & Shrader, p. 94-98
  52. ^ a b c d Newell & Shrader, p. 98-104
  53. ^ a b c d Newell & Shrader, p. 104-106
  54. ^ Perry D. Jamieson, Crossing the Deadly Ground: United States Army Tactics, 1865–1899 (2004)
  55. ^ John K. Mahon, "Civil War Infantry Assault Tactics." Military Affairs (1961): 57–68.
  56. ^ Paddy Griffith, Battle tactics of the civil war (Yale University Press, 1989)
  57. ^ Earl J. Hess (2015). Civil War Infantry Tactics: Training, Combat, and Small-Unit Effectiveness. LSU Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780807159385.
  58. ^ Ella Lonn, Desertion During the Civil War (U of Nebraska Press, 1928)
  59. ^ Chris Walsh, "'Cowardice Weakness or Infirmity, Whichever It May Be Termed': A Shadow History of the Civil War." Civil War History (2013) 59#4 pp: 492–526.Online
  60. ^ "Desertion (Confederate) during the Civil War". encyclopediavirginia.org. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
  61. ^ Shannon Smith Bennett, "Draft Resistance and Rioting." in Maggi M. Morehouse and Zoe Trodd, eds., Civil War America: A Social and Cultural History with Primary Sources (2013) ch 1
  62. ^ Peter Levine, "Draft evasion in the North during the Civil War, 1863–1865." Journal of American History (1981): 816–834. online Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ Adrian Cook, The armies of the streets: the New York City draft riots of 1863 (1974).
  64. ^ McPherson, James M. (1996). Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-19-509679-8. Rioters were mostly Irish Catholic immigrants and their children. They mainly attacked the members of New York's small black population. For a year, Democratic leaders had been telling their Irish-American constituents that the wicked 'Black Republicans' were waging the war to free the slaves who would come north and take away the jobs of Irish workers. The use of black stevedores as scabs in a recent strike by Irish dockworkers made this charge seem plausible. The prospect of being drafted to fight to free the slaves made the Irish even more receptive to demogogic rhetoric.
  65. ^ Iver Bernstein, The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War (1990)
  66. ^ Shannon M. Smith, "Teaching Civil War Union Politics: Draft Riots in the Midwest." OAH Magazine of History (2013) 27#2 pp: 33–36. online
  67. ^ Kenneth H. Wheeler, "Local Autonomy and Civil War Draft Resistance: Holmes County, Ohio." Civil War History. v.45#2 1999. pp 147+ online edition

References

  • Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. 2 vols. Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885–86. ISBN 0-914427-67-9.
  • Glatthaar, Joseph T. Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers. New York: Free Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-02-911815-3.
  • Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 0-252-00918-5.
  • McPherson, James M. What They Fought For, 1861–1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-8071-1904-4.
  • McGrath, John J. The Brigade: A History, Its Organization and Employment in the US Army. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, US Army Command and General Staff College, 2004. ISBN 9781428910225
  • Shrader, C. R., Newell, C. R. (2011). Of Duty Well and Faithfully Done: A History of the Regular Army in the Civil War. University of Nebraska, 2011.
  • Wilson, J. B. (1998). Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1998.

Further reading

  • Bledsoe, Andrew S. Citizen-Officers: The Union and Confederate Volunteer Junior Officer Corps in the American Civil War. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-8071-6070-1.
  • Canfield, Daniel T. "Opportunity Lost: Combined Operations and the Development of Union Military Strategy, April 1861 – April 1862." Journal of Military History 79.3 (2015).
  • Kahn, Matthew E., and Dora L. Costa. "Cowards and Heroes: Group Loyalty in the American Civil War." Quarterly journal of economics 2 (2003): 519–548. online version
  • Nevins, Allan. The War for the Union. Vol. 1, The Improvised War 1861–1862. The War for the Union. Vol. 2, War Becomes Revolution 1862–1863. Vol. 3, The Organized War 1863–1864. Vol. 4, The Organized War to Victory 1864–1865. (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1960–71. ISBN 1-56852-299-1.)
  • Prokopowicz, Gerald J. All for the Regiment: the Army of the Ohio, 1861–1862 (UNC Press, 2014). online
  • Shannon, Fred A. The Organization and Administration of the Union Army 1861–1865. 2 vols. Gloucester, MA: P. Smith, 1965. OCLC 428886. First published 1928 by A.H. Clark Co.
  • Welcher, Frank J. The Union Army, 1861–1865 Organization and Operations. Vol. 1, The Eastern Theater. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-253-36453-1; . The Union Army, 1861–1865 Organization and Operations. Vol. 2, The Western Theater. (1993). ISBN 0-253-36454-X.

External links