List of battles fought in Oklahoma

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This is an incomplete list of military and other armed confrontations that have occurred within the boundaries of the modern US State of Oklahoma since European contact. The region was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1535 to 1679, New France from 1679 to 1803, and part of the United States of America 1803–present.

The Plains Indian Wars directly affected the region during westward expansion, as did the American Civil War.

Battles

Name Date Location War Campaign Dead Belligerents
Battle of the Twin Villages 1759 uncertain[1] 114 Kingdom of New Spain vs Wichita[2]
Battle of Claremore Mound[3] October 1817 modern Rogers County 38+ Cherokee vs Osage[4]
Cutthroat Gap Massacre[5] Spring of 1833 modern Kiowa County 150 Osage vs Kiowa[6]
Battle of Wolf Creek[7] June 1838 modern Ellis County 72 Cheyenne & Arapaho vs Kiowa, Comanche, & Apache[8]
Battle of Little Robe Creek[9] May 12, 1858 modern Ellis County Plains Indian Wars Antelope Hills Expedition 78 Comanche vs Texas Rangers[10]
Battle of the Wichita Village October 1, 1858 near modern Rush Springs Plains Indian Wars Wichita Expedition 75 Comanche vs 2nd U.S. Cavalry[11][12]
Battle of Round Mountain[13] November 19, 1861 unknown / location disputed[14] American Civil War Trail of Blood on Ice 6+[15] Creek & Seminole vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Chusto-Talasah[16] December 9, 1861 near modern Tulsa American Civil War Trail of Blood on Ice 15+[17] Creek & Seminole vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Chustenahlah[18] December 26, 1861 near modern Skiatook American Civil War Trail of Blood on Ice 9+[19] Creek & Seminole vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Old Fort Wayne[20] October 22, 1862 Fort Wayne[21] American Civil War Operations North of Boston Mountains (1862) 64+ United States of America vs Confederate States of America
Tonkawa Massacre October 24, 1862 modern Caddo County American Civil War 137-150 Osage vs Tonkawa[22]
Battle of Cabin Creek[23] July 1-2, 1863 modern Mayes County American Civil War Operations to Control Indian Territory (1863) 88 United States of America vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Honey Springs[24] July 17, 1863 modern Muskogee County & McIntosh County American Civil War Operations to Control Indian Territory (1863) 167 United States of America vs Confederate States of America
Battle of Middle Boggy Depot[25] February 13, 1864 near modern Allen American Civil War Operations to Control Indian Territory (1864) 47 United States of America vs Confederate States of America
[26][better source needed] June 15, 1864 near modern Tamaha known as Pleasant Bluff American Civil War 4 USA vs. CSA
Battle of Washita River[27] November 27, 1868 near modern Cheyenne Plains Indian Wars Comanche Campaign 171+ United States of America vs Cheyenne
Battle of Soldier Spring December 25, 1868 modern Greer County & modern Kiowa County Plains Indian Wars Canadian River Expedition 26 Comanche & Kiowa vs 6th U.S. Cavalry & 37th U.S. Infantry[28][29]
Goingsnake Massacre April 15, 1872 modern Adair County 11 U.S. Marshals vs. Cherokee[30]
Sand Hill Fight April 6, 1875 modern Canadian County Plains Indian Wars Cheyenne vs U.S. Cavalry[31]
Enid-Pond Creek Railroad War 1893-1894 modern Grant and Garfield Counties Railroad Wars 0 Citizens vs. Rock Island Railroad[32]
Crazy Snake Rebellion March 1909 Okmulgee County 3 Creek Indians Snake Government vs. Local Citizens, 8th Cavalry Regiment U.S. Army, 1st Regiment Oklahoma National Guard.[33][34]
Green Corn Rebellion August 2-3, 1917 Pontotoc County World War I 3 Tenant farmers vs. Local authorities[35]
Tulsa race riot May 31 – June 1, 1921 Tulsa County 39 White citizens vs. Black citizens[36]
Red River Bridge War July 3 – September 7, 1931 Bryan County, Oklahoma and Grayson County, Texas 0 Oklahoma Army National Guard vs. Texas Ranger Division[37][38]

Notes

  1. ^ Modern and historical sources are unclear whether the battle occurred in modern Montague County, Texas or modern Jefferson County, Oklahoma, although the former is the most likely. Archaeological surveys of the village on the Oklahoma side of the Red River have not produced any conclusive evidence of the battle’s location there.
  2. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/T/TW005.html
  3. ^ Also known as Battle of the Strawberry Moon and Claremore Mound Massacre.
  4. ^ http://www.claremoremuseum.com/battle-of-claremore-mound/
  5. ^ Also known as the Battle of Cutthroat Gap.
  6. ^ http://rebelcherokee.labdiva.com/massacregap.html
  7. ^ Also known as the Wolf Creek Massacre.
  8. ^ http://forttours.com/pages/wolfcreek.asp
  9. ^ Also known as the Battle of Antelope Hills.
  10. ^ http://westernamericana2.blogspot.com/2009/12/battle-of-antelope-hills.html
  11. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/W/WI004.html
  12. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/chronicles/v015/v015p226.html
  13. ^ “CWSAC Battle Summary: Round Mountain”. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  14. ^ One location is cited as being near modern Keystone, yet another location given is near modern Yale.
  15. ^ No accurate count of Native American casualties survives. Opothleyahola, commander of the Native American force, estimated his losses as 110 killed and wounded.
  16. ^ “CWSAC Battle Summary: Chusto-Talasah”. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  17. ^ No accurate count of Native American casualties survives. Confederate Col Douglas H. Cooper estimated the Native Americans’ losses at 500 killed and wounded, although some accounts are as low as 412.
  18. ^ “CWSAC Battle Summary: Chustenahlah”. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  19. ^ No accurate count of Native American casualties survives. Confederate Col James M. McIntosh estimated the Native Americans’ losses at 250 killed and wounded.
  20. ^ “CWSAC Battle Summary: Old Fort Wayne”. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  21. ^ An Oklahoma State Historical site marker is placed on U.S. Hwy 59 north of Watts. However, the exact location of Fort Wayne has not been determined.
  22. ^ http://okcivilwar.org/sites/tonkawa-massacre
  23. ^ “CWSAC Battle Summary: Cabin Creek”. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  24. ^ “CWSAC Battle Summary: Honey Springs”. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  25. ^ “CWSAC Battle Summary: Middle Boggy Depot”. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  26. ^ Ambush of the steamboat J. R. Williams
  27. ^ Hoig, Stan. The Battle of the Washita: The Sheridan-Custer Indian Campaign of 1867-69 (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press), 1979.
  28. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/S/SO021.html
  29. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/chronicles/v016/v016p275.html
  30. ^ http://www.historynet.com/blood-bath-at-going-snake-the-cherokee-courtroom-shootout.htm
  31. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/S/SA016.html
  32. ^ http://www.historynet.com/hell-on-rails-oklahoma-towns-at-war-with-the-rock-island-railroad.htm
  33. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v008/v008p189.html
  34. ^ http://www.okgenweb.org/~okmcinto/Pics/harjo_chitto.htm
  35. ^ http://libcom.org/library/us-green-corn-rebellion-1917
  36. ^ http://www.tulsahistory.org/learn/online-exhibits/the-tulsa-race-riot/
  37. ^ http://www.okladot.state.ok.us/hqdiv/p-r-div/spansoftime/strains.htm
  38. ^ https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mgr02

See also