The Oklahoma Portal
The flag of Oklahoma (; Oklahoma Choctaw: , Oklahumma pronounced ; [oklahómma] Cherokee: ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ, , Okalahoma pronounced ) is a [ògàlàhǒːmã́] state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas to the south and west, Kansas to the north, Missouri to the northeast, Arkansas to the east, New Mexico to the west, and Colorado to the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.
The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words , 'people' and okla , which translates as 'red'. Oklahoma is also known informally by its humma nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the Sooners, settlers who staked their claims in the Unassigned Lands before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 authorized the Land Rush of 1889.
The land now known as Oklahoma has been inhabited since at least the
last ice age. The Southern Plains villagers and the Mississippian people inhabited the area between roughly 800 and 1500. The Southern Plains Panhandle culture developed in the Oklahoma Panhandle in western Oklahoma while the Caddoan Mississippian culture inhabited the eastern parts of the state and included the major settlement of Spiro Mounds. The area was also inhabited by the Wichita people, Tonkawa people, and Caddo people. Between 1300 and 1500, the Plains Apache migrated into the Southern Great Plains (now western Oklahoma). During the 1700s, the Comanche people, Kiowa people, Osage people, and Quapaw people migrated into the region.
The first European contact with the region was the
Spanish explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado in 1541. However, the land was claimed by the Kingdom of France's Louisiana colony and included in the Louisiana Purchase to the United States in 1803. Oklahoma was part of District of Louisiana (1804–1805), Louisiana Territory (1805–1812), Missouri Territory (1812–1821), Arkansas Territory (1819–1828), before finally being designated Indian Territory. In the 1830s, the United States began forcibly removing Native Americans to Indian Territory, with the most famous instance being the deportation of the Five Civilized Tribes ( Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee, and the Seminole) which became known as the Trail of Tears. During the American Civil War, the Five Tribes formally sided with the Confederate States of America, while some tribal members served in the Union-aligned Indian Home Guard. After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished by treaty in the Five Tribes. Between 1866 and 1899, the cattle trails from Texas to Kansas ran through the territory. The Dawes Act of 1887 began the allotment of most Oklahoma tribes and the Curtis Act of 1898 authorized the allotment of the Five Tribes territory. The Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 authorized the Land Rush of 1889 in the Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory. In 1890,
Oklahoma Territory was formed out of the western half of Indian Territory. After an attempt to make Indian Territory into the State of Sequoyah failed in 1905, Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907.
The 20th century discovery of
petroleum led to the development of a powerful oil industry. In the 1910s and 1920s, Oklahoma experienced major instances of civil unrest with the Green Corn Rebellion and the Tulsa Race Massacre. In the 1930s, the Dust Bowl led to mass emigration from the state. Conservation efforts in the state reversed population declines in 1950 and continued through the 1960s. In 1995, the state was the site of one of the largest domestic terror attacks, the Oklahoma City Bombing. In the 21st century, the United States Supreme Court ruled in that the McGirt v. Oklahoma Muscogee Nation reservation was never disestablished. The ruling led to similar rulings regarding the other Five Tribes ( Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation, Chickasaw Nation and Seminole Nation of Oklahoma). ( )
Woody Guthrie Folk Festival is an annually festival held in mid-July to commemorate the life and music of Woody Guthrie. The festival starts on the weekend closest to July 14 - the date of Guthrie's birth - in Guthrie's hometown of Okemah, Oklahoma. Daytime main stage performances are held inside at the Brick Street Cafe and the Crystal Theater. Evening main stage performances are held outdoors at the Pastures of Plenty. The festival is planned and implemented annually by the Woody Guthrie Coalition, a non-profit corporation, whose goal is simply to ensure Guthrie's musical legacy. The event is made possible in part from a grant from the Oklahoma Arts Council. Mary Jo Guthrie Edgmon, Woody Guthrie's younger sister, is the festival's perennial guest of honor.
The festival, which over the years has morphed into being called "WoodyFest" by attendees, was founded in 1998 and the inaugural festival included performances by Guthrie's son
Arlo Guthrie, British folk-punk-rock artist Billy Bragg, Ellis Paul, Jimmy LaFave, Joel Rafael, and The Red Dirt Rangers. For the festival's founding, the Woody Guthrie Coalition commissioned a local Creek Indian sculptor to cast a full-body bronze statue of Guthrie and his guitar, complete with the guitar's well-known inscription: "This machine kills fascists".
(Read more . . . ) Spotlight city -
( Shawnee Meskwaki: ) is a city in and the Shânîheki county seat of Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 29,857 in 2010, a 4.9 percent increase from the figure of 28,692 in 2000. The city is part of the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area and the principal city of the Shawnee Micropolitan Statistical Area.
With access to
, Shawnee is approximately 45 minutes east of downtown
. To the east and northeast, Shawnee is 112 miles from the
McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System
, which provides shipping barge access to the
Gulf of Mexico
List of spotlight cities
Tulsa, Oklahoma Oklahoma City El Reno, Oklahoma Muskogee, Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Sand Springs, Oklahoma McAlester, Oklahoma Coweta, Oklahoma Durant, Oklahoma Enid, Oklahoma Ardmore, Oklahoma Bartlesville, Oklahoma Edmond, Oklahoma Moore, Oklahoma Drumright, Oklahoma Ponca City, Oklahoma Tahlequah, Oklahoma Ada, Oklahoma Cushing, Oklahoma Jenks, Oklahoma Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Featured content State facts
Oklahoma State Capitol building
Nickname:The Sooner State
Capital and largest city: Oklahoma City
Governor: Kevin Stitt ( R)
Total area: 181,196 square kilometers (69,960 square miles)
Population (2020 census): 3,959,353
Date admitted to the Union: November 16, 1907
Senators: Markwayne Mullin (R), James Lankford (R) Representatives : Kevin Hern (R), Josh Brecheen (R), Frank Lucas (R), Tom Cole (R), Stephanie Bice (R)
The Scissortail Flycatcher, Oklahoma's state bird Selected biography
Carrie Underwood, born March 10, 1983 in Muskogee, Oklahoma, is an American country music singer who won the fourth season of . She has since become a American Idol multi-platinum selling recording artist. Her debut album, , was certified 6x platinum and is the fastest selling debut country album in Some Hearts Nielsen SoundScan history. Underwood is the first American Idol winner to sweep up honors at all three major music awards in the same awards show season (06-07), including one American Music Award, five Billboard Music Awards, and two Grammy Awards (including Best New Artist). Her critically acclaimed debut album is the best selling album of any American Idol contestant in the U.S. to date.
, has yielded five number one hits to date on various charts in the Some Hearts United States and Canada, including " Inside Your Heaven", " Jesus, Take the Wheel", and " Before He Cheats". Her second album, , has already produced a top 10 hit, " Carnival Ride So Small".
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