The Oklahoma Portal
The flag of Oklahoma (; Oklahoma Choctaw: , Oklahumma pronounced ; [oklahómma] Cherokee: ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ, , Okalahoma pronounced ) is a [ògàlàhǒːmã́] state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas to the south and west, Kansas to the north, Missouri to the northeast, Arkansas to the east, New Mexico to the west, and Colorado to the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.
The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words , 'people' and okla , which translates as 'red'. Oklahoma is also known informally by its humma nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the Sooners, settlers who staked their claims in the Unassigned Lands before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 authorized the Land Rush of 1889.
The land now known as Oklahoma has been inhabited since at least the
last ice age. The Southern Plains villagers and the Mississippian people inhabited the area between roughly 800 and 1500. The Southern Plains Panhandle culture developed in the Oklahoma Panhandle in western Oklahoma while the Caddoan Mississippian culture inhabited the eastern parts of the state and included the major settlement of Spiro Mounds. The area was also inhabited by the Wichita people, Tonkawa people, and Caddo people. Between 1300 and 1500, the Plains Apache migrated into the Southern Great Plains (now western Oklahoma). During the 1700s, the Comanche people, Kiowa people, Osage people, and Quapaw people migrated into the region.
The first European contact with the region was the
Spanish explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado in 1541. However, the land was claimed by the Kingdom of France's Louisiana colony and included in the Louisiana Purchase to the United States in 1803. Oklahoma was part of District of Louisiana (1804–1805), Louisiana Territory (1805–1812), Missouri Territory (1812–1821), Arkansas Territory (1819–1828), before finally being designated Indian Territory. In the 1830s, the United States began forcibly removing Native Americans to Indian Territory, with the most famous instance being the deportation of the Five Civilized Tribes ( Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee, and the Seminole) which became known as the Trail of Tears. During the American Civil War, the Five Tribes formally sided with the Confederate States of America, while some tribal members served in the Union-aligned Indian Home Guard. After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished by treaty in the Five Tribes. Between 1866 and 1899, the cattle trails from Texas to Kansas ran through the territory. The Dawes Act of 1887 began the allotment of most Oklahoma tribes and the Curtis Act of 1898 authorized the allotment of the Five Tribes territory. The Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 authorized the Land Rush of 1889 in the Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory. In 1890,
Oklahoma Territory was formed out of the western half of Indian Territory. After an attempt to make Indian Territory into the State of Sequoyah failed in 1905, Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907.
The 20th century discovery of
petroleum led to the development of a powerful oil industry. In the 1910s and 1920s, Oklahoma experienced major instances of civil unrest with the Green Corn Rebellion and the Tulsa Race Massacre. In the 1930s, the Dust Bowl led to mass emigration from the state. Conservation efforts in the state reversed population declines in 1950 and continued through the 1960s. In 1995, the state was the site of one of the largest domestic terror attacks, the Oklahoma City Bombing. In the 21st century, the United States Supreme Court ruled in that the McGirt v. Oklahoma Muscogee Nation reservation was never disestablished. The ruling led to similar rulings regarding the other Five Tribes ( Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation, Chickasaw Nation and Seminole Nation of Oklahoma). ( )
Oklahoma State Capitol is the house of government of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. It is the building that houses the Oklahoma Legislature, and the meeting place of the Oklahoma Supreme Court. It is located along Lincoln Boulevard in Oklahoma City. The present structure includes a dome that was completed during 2002. The building is a National Historic Landmark.
The state capitol campus is famous for its oil wells and remains the only state capitol grounds in the United States with active oil rigs. The capitol building is directly atop the
Oklahoma City Oil Field.
Oklahoma's first capitol was originally located in the city of Guthrie. At noon on April 22, 1889 cannons sounded the start of the
Oklahoma land run. In only six hours about 10,000 people had settled in what would soon become the capital city. Within only months Guthrie became a modern brick and stone town with municipal water, electricity, a mass transit system and underground parking garages for horses and carriages.
Oklahoma's newly established state government had an election to decide where the capitol should be located. As a result, on June 11, 1910, the state seal was taken from Guthrie and moved south to Oklahoma City, the present site of the state capitol. For several years the capitol offices were housed in the Huckins Hotel in downtown Oklahoma City.
(Read more . . . ) Spotlight city -
is a city in Broken Arrow Tulsa and Wagoner counties in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2020 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 113,540 residents and is the 4th most populous city in the state. The city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 1,023,988 residents.
sold lots for the town site in 1902 and company secretary William S. Fears named it Broken Arrow. The city was named for a Creek community settled by
Creek Native Americans
who had been forced to relocate from
to Oklahoma along the
Trail of Tears
List of spotlight cities
Tulsa, Oklahoma Oklahoma City El Reno, Oklahoma Muskogee, Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Sand Springs, Oklahoma McAlester, Oklahoma Coweta, Oklahoma Durant, Oklahoma Enid, Oklahoma Ardmore, Oklahoma Bartlesville, Oklahoma Edmond, Oklahoma Moore, Oklahoma Drumright, Oklahoma Ponca City, Oklahoma Tahlequah, Oklahoma Ada, Oklahoma Cushing, Oklahoma Jenks, Oklahoma Shawnee, Oklahoma
Featured content State facts
Oklahoma State Capitol building
Nickname:The Sooner State
Capital and largest city: Oklahoma City
Governor: Kevin Stitt ( R)
Total area: 181,196 square kilometers (69,960 square miles)
Population (2020 census): 3,959,353
Date admitted to the Union: November 16, 1907
Senators: Markwayne Mullin (R), James Lankford (R) Representatives : Kevin Hern (R), Josh Brecheen (R), Frank Lucas (R), Tom Cole (R), Stephanie Bice (R)
The Scissortail Flycatcher, Oklahoma's state bird Selected biography
Frank "Pop" Ivy (January 25, 1916 – May 17, 2003) was a football player and coach, who holds the unique distinction of being the only person ever to serve as a head coach in the National Football League, the American Football League and the Western Interprovincial Football Union.
A native of
Skiatook, Oklahoma, Ivy played for the University of Oklahoma beginning in 1937. He was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the 1940 NFL draft, but was traded to the Chicago Cardinals on October 17. Ivy would continue to see action on both sides of the ball throughout the rest of his NFL career, and in 1942, he had his best season with 27 receptions, second behind the legendary Don Hutson. His time on the gridiron was interrupted for more than two years by his service in World War II, but he closed out his career in 1947 by helping the franchise to its only NFL title. Ivy was on the sidelines for the NFL Championship, having separated his shoulder just weeks earlier. ( )
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