The American Civil War Portal
The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a sectional rebellion against the United States of America by the Confederate States, formed of eleven southern states‘ governments which moved to secede from the Union after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States. The Union’s victory was eventually achieved by leveraging advantages in population, manufacturing and logistics and through a strategic naval blockade denying the Confederacy access to the world’s markets.
In many ways, the conflict’s central issues – the enslavement of African Americans, the role of constitutional federal government, and the rights of states – are still not completely resolved. Not surprisingly, the Confederate army‘s surrender at Appomattox on April 9, 1865 did little to change many Americans‘ attitudes toward the potential powers of central government. The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution in the years immediately following the war did not change the racial prejudice prevalent among Americans of the day; and the process of Reconstruction did not heal the deeply personal wounds inflicted by four brutal years of war and more than 970,000 casualties – 3 percent of the population, including approximately 560,000 deaths. As a result, controversies affected by the war’s unresolved social, political, economic and racial tensions continue to shape contemporary American thought. The causes of the war, the reasons for the outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of much discussion even today.
The Battle of Corydon was a minor engagement that took place July 9, 1863, just south of Corydon, which had been the original capital of Indiana until 1825, and was the seat of Harrison county. The attack occurred during Morgan’s Raid in the American Civil War as a force of 2,500 cavalry invaded the North in support of the Tullahoma Campaign. It was the only pitched battle of the Civil War that occurred in Indiana, and no battle has occurred within Indiana since.
Although the short battle cost the cavalry twice as many casualties as the outnumbered militia units, the battle resulted in a Confederate victory, which enabled Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan to secure supplies and money before continuing his raid through Indiana and into Ohio. The delay, however, proved critical in helping the pursuing Union army overtake and later capture Morgan and his forces.
Grand Parade of the States
Though no major battles were fought in New Jersey, the state provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union during the American Civil War. Soldiers and volunteers from New Jersey played an important part in the war, including Philip Kearny and George B. McClellan, who led the Army of the Potomac early in the Civil War and unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States in 1864 against his former commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln.
The Quaker population of New Jersey was especially intolerant of slavery. However, New Jersey ended up becoming the last of the northern states to abolish slavery by enacting legislation which caused the slow abolishment of slavery. Though New Jersey passed an act for the gradual abolition of slavery in 1804, it wasn’t until 1830 that most blacks were free in the state. However, by the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African-Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen. New Jersey at first refused to ratify the Constitutional Amendments that banned slavery. New Jersey was a major part of the extensive Underground Railroad system.
John DeWitt Clinton Atkins (June 4, 1825 – June 2, 1908) was an American politician and a member of both the United States House of Representatives and Confederate Congress from Tennessee. During the Civil War, he served as lieutenant colonel of the Fifth Tennessee Regiment in the Confederate Army in 1861. He was a delegate to the Confederate Provisional Congress in November 1861. He then was elected to the First Confederate Congress and was reelected in 1863 to the Second Confederate Congress.
Following the war, he was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-third and the four succeeding Congresses by Tennessee’s 7th congressional district, and then by the 8th congressional district after reapportionment. Atkins engaged in agricultural pursuits near Paris, Tennessee, in Henry County. He was appointed United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs by President Cleveland on March 21, 1885, and he served until June 13, 1888, when he resigned. He was an unsuccessful Democratic nomination for United States Senator in 1888. He again engaged in agricultural pursuits, retired from active pursuits in 1898, and moved to Paris, Tennessee.